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BRITISH SCHOOL OF ARCHAEOLOGY IN EGYPT 
AND EGYPTIAN RESEARCH ACCOUNT 
NINETEENTH YEAR, 1913 


TARKHAN II 


BY 

W. M. FLINDERS PETRIE 

Hon. D.C.L., LL.D.. Litt.D., Ph.D. 

F.R.S., F.B.A.. Hon. F.S.A. (Scx)t.), A.R.I.B.A. 

MEMBER OP THE ROYAL IRISH ACADEMY 
MEMBER OP THE IMPERIAL GERMAN ARCHAEOLOGICAL INSTITUTE 
CORRESPONDING MEMBER OP THE SOCIETY OP ANTHROPOLOGY, BERLIN 
MEMBER OP THE ITALIAN SOCIETY OP ANTHROPOLOGY 
MEMBER OP THE ROMAN SOCIETY OP ANTHROPOLOGY 
MEMBER OP THE SOCIETY OF NORTHERN ANTIQUARIES 
MEMBER OP THE AMERICAN PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIETY 
EDWARDS PROFESSOR OF EGYPTOLOGY, UNIVERSITY OF LONDON 


LONDON 

SCHOOL OF ARCHAEOLOGY IN EGYPT 
UNIVERSITY COLLEGE, GOWER STREET, W.C. 

AND 

BERNARD QUARITCH 

II, GRAFTON STREET, NEW BOND STREET, W. 


1914 


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UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN 



BRITISH SCHOOL OF ARCHAEOLOGY IN EGYPT 
AND EGYPTIAN RESEARCH ACCOUNT 
NINETEENTH YEAR, 1913 


TARKHAN II 


BY 

W. M. FLINDERS PETRIE 

Hon. D.C.L., LL.D.. Litt.D., Ph.D. 

F.R.S., F.B.A.. Hon. F.S.A. (Scx)t.), A.R.I.B.A. 

MEMBER OP THE ROYAL IRISH ACADEMY 
MEMBER OP THE IMPERIAL GERMAN ARCHAEOLOGICAL INSTITUTE 
CORRESPONDING MEMBER OP THE SOCIETY OP ANTHROPOLOGY, BERLIN 
MEMBER OP THE ITALIAN SOCIETY OP ANTHROPOLOGY 
MEMBER OP THE ROMAN SOCIETY OP ANTHROPOLOGY 
MEMBER OP THE SOCIETY OF NORTHERN ANTIQUARIES 
MEMBER OP THE AMERICAN PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIETY 
EDWARDS PROFESSOR OF EGYPTOLOGY, UNIVERSITY OF LONDON 


LONDON 

SCHOOL OF ARCHAEOLOGY IN EGYPT 
UNIVERSITY COLLEGE, GOWER STREET, W.C. 

AND 

BERNARD QUARITCH 

II, GRAFTON STREET, NEW BOND STREET, W. 


1914 


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HAZBLL, WATSON AND VINBT, LD., 
LONDON AND AYLB6BURY. 


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BRITISH SCHOOL OF ARCHAEOLOGY IN EGYPT 
AND EGYPTIAN RESEARCH ACCOUNT 


patrons: 

F.-M. VISCOUNT KITCHENER OP KHARTUM, O.M., K.P., Q.C.B., Q.C.S.I., 
O.C.M.O., Q.C.I.E. 

RT. HON. THE EARL OF CROMER, O.M., Q.C.B., a.C.M.Q., K.C.S.I., C.I.E., P.C. 


GENERAL COMMITTEE Executive Members) 


Hon. John Abercromby 
Walter Baily 
Henry Balfour 
Freiherr von Bissing 
Rev. Dr. T. G. Bonney 
Prof. R. C. Bosanquet 
Rt. Hon. Viscount Bryce of 
Dechmont 
Dr. R. M. Burrows 
•Prof. J. B. Bury {Chairman) 
•Somers Clarke 
Edward Clodd 
Prof. Boyd Dawkins 
Prof. Sir S. Dill 
•Miss Eckenstein 
Dr. Gregory Foster 
Dr. J. G. Frazer 
•Dr. Alan Gardiner 
•Pro£ Ernest Gardner 


Prof. Percy Gardner 

Rt Hon. Sir G. T. Goldie 

Prof. Gowland 

Mrs. J. R. Green 

Rt Hon. F.-M. Lord Grenfell 

Mrs. F. Ll. Griffith 

Dr. A. C. Haddon 

Dr. Jesse Haworth 

Rev. Dr. A. C. Headlam 

D. G. Hogarth 

Sir H. H. Howorth 

Baron A. von Hugel 

Dr. A. S. Hunt 

Mrs. C. H. W. Johns 

Capt H. G. Lyons 

Prof. Macalister 

Dr. R. W. Macan 

Rev. Prof. Mahaffy 

Sir Henry Miers 


•J. G. Milne 
Sir C. Scott Moncrieff 
Robert Mond 
Prof. Montague 
Walter Morrison 
•Miss M. A. Murray 
Prof. P. E. Newberry 
His Grace the Duke of 
Northumberland. 

F. W. Percival 
Dr. Pinches 
Dr. G. W. Prothero 
Dr. G. Reisner 
Sir W. Richmond 
P rof. F. W. Ridgeway 
Mrs. Strong 
Mrs. Tirard 
E. Towry Whyte 


Honorary Treasurer--*¥L. Sefton-Jones 
Honorary Director — Prof. Flinders Petrie 
Honorary Secretaries — Mrs. Hilda Petrie and •Dr. J. H. Walker 
Bankers —The Anglo-Egyptian Bank. 


The need of providing for the training of students is even greater in Egypt than it 
is in Greece and Italy; and the relation of England to Egypt at present makes it the 
more suitable that support should be given to a British School in that land. This body is 
the only such agency, and is also the basis of the excavations of Prof. Flinders Petrie, who 
has had many students associated with his work in past years. The great enterprise of the 
excavation of the temples and city of Memphis, which is continued year by year, promises the 
most valuable results. This labour will necessarily be far more costly than any other work 
in Egypt, and it cannot be suitably carried out without increasing the present income of the 
School. Active support is required to ensure the continuance of such work, which depends 
entirely on personal contributions, and each subscriber receives the annual volume. The 
antiquities not retained by the Egyptian Government are presented to Public Museums, after 
the Annual Exhibition, in June and July, at University College. The accounts are audited by 
a Chartered Accountant, and published in the Annual Report. Treasurer: H. Sefton-Jones. 

ADDRESS THE HON. SECRETARY, 

BRITISH SCHOOL IN EGYPT, UNIVERSITY COLLEGE, 

GOWER STREET, LONDON, W.C 


331436 


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CONTENTS 


TARKHAN 

INTRODUCTION 

SECT. 

1. The workers. 

2. The importance of the site . 

CHAPTER I 

THE VALLEY CEMETERY 

3. The plan. 

4. Sanding over the graves 

5. Capping of the graves . 

6. Mastaba 1845 • • . . 

7. Other small mastabas . 

CHAPTER II 

THE GREAT MASTABAS 

8. Position and finding 

9. Other great mastabas known 


10. Mastaba 2038, body.^ 

11. » » interior.4 

12. Graves around, 2038 ..... 5 

13. Date of, 2038.5 

14. Mastaba, 2050.^ 

15. Graves around, 2050.5 

16. Graves of donkeys.5 

17. Accuracy of the mastabas .... 6 

18. Western mastabas, 2055 .... 8 

19. Grave 1973.. 

20. Wooden origin of buildings .... 8 

21. The chiefs house. o 


CHAPTER III 
DESCRIPTION OF THE PLATES 

SECT. page 

22. Pis. i, ii, spoons, etc.9 

23. Pis. iii-v, glaze, copper, ivory, etc. . . lo 

24. PI. vi, names and flints.10 

25. PL vii, flints... 

26. Pis. viii-ix, tables, headrests, foreign pots 11 

27. Pis. xx-xxi, marks.12 

28. Pis. xxii, etc, slates.12 

29. Pis. xliv-xlv, beads.13 

30. PI. xlviii, map.13 

31. Pis. xlix, etc, bone register and curves . . 14 

32. Pis. Ixi-lxxi, skulls.14 


CHAPTER IV 
EARLY EGYPTIAN SKELETONS 


33. Numbers for study.15 

34. Methods for forming curves . . . .15 

35. Normal curves of females . .16 

36. Female curves, single.16 

37. Male curves, double.16 

38. The male minority.16 

39. Sum of leg-bones.17 

40. Skeletons of other periods . .17 

41. Leg-bones of other periods . * 17 

42. Elimination of male majority .18 

43. Reduction of stature.18 

44. Gradual changes of population . .18 

45. Minority group of invaders . . . .19 

46. Statures.19 

47. Summary.20 


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vi 


CONTENTS 


CHAPTER V 

METHODS OF BURIAL 

SECT. 

48. Attitudes of burial .... 

PAGE 

. 21 

SECT. 

56. Slate palettes. 

57. Beads. 

58. Summary. 

PAGE 

• 23 

• 23 

• 23 

49. Direction of head . 

50. Direction of face . 

• 

. 21 

. 22 

CHAPTER VI 


51. Left side burial 


. 22 

THE SKULLS AND JAWS 


52. Size of graves 


. 22 

59. Differences not clear in skulls 

. 24 

53. Position of graves . 


. 22 

60. Materials for study .... 

. 24 

54. Size of coffins 


• 23 

61. Curves of results . . . 

. 25 

55. Basket burials 


• 23 

62. Systematic study of jaws 

• 25 

Index .... 




. 27 


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LIST OF PLATES 


WITH PAGE REFERENCES TO THE DESCRIPTIONS 



PAGES 



PAGES 

i. 

Small objects from graves, o-i dynasties . 

8,9 

xxxvii. 

Register of burials, S.D. 78 . 


13 

ii. 

Ivory spoons. 

9 

xxxviii. 

1, „ „ • • 


13 

iii. 

Ivory, wood, and copper objects 

10 

xxxix. 

>, ,, • 


13 

iv. 

Glazed pottery, and alabaster vases 8, lo 

xl. 

W it it • • 


13 

V. 

Glazed vases . . . . . 

10 

xli. 

it it 1, • • 


13 

vL 

Royal names: flints, vases, weights lo, 

11 

xlii. 

„ „ S.D. 79, 80 . 


13 

vii. 

Maces; worked flints ... 8 

II 

xliii. 

„ S.D. 81 . 


13 

viii. 

Coffin 1973 ; stone tables . . 8 

II 





ix. 

Names, cones, foreign pottery, headrests 11 

12 


Minority Group of Males 



X. 

Five typical attitudes, i to 5, of bodies . 

21 

xliv. 

Register of beads 


13 

xi. 

Cemetery, and peculiar burials 

21 

xlv. 

,1 ii ... 


13 

xii. 

Mastaba 1845, with shrine and offerings 


xlvi. 

Plan of the Valley Cemetery 

I 

22 


S.D. 77. 

2 

xlvii. 

Additional graves on M, Q, hills 


13 

xiii. 

Small mastaba, with shrines and offerings 

3 

xlviii. 

General map of site 

• 

13 

xiv. 

Small mastabas, with surface stacks of 


xlix. 

Bone measurements: Humerus, Radius 

14 


offerings. 

3 

1. 

„ „ Clavicle, Tibia 


14 

XV. 

Mastaba 2038, dynasty i . . . 4, s 

li. 

„ Femui’ 


14 

xvi. 

Stages of opening graves 2040 and 2039 

5 

lii. 

Curves of Humerus and Radius . 


16 

xvii. 

St^es of opening graves 2051, 2053, 


liii. 

Male and Female compared 


16 


2054. 

6 

liv. 

Humerus and Radius 


16 

xviil 

Plans of mastabas 2038, 2050 . 

5-8 

Iv. 

Clavicle and leg . 


17 

xix. 

Grave of donkeys 2052. Grave 1973 . 6, 8 

Ivi. 

Curves of various periods: Leg and 


XX. 

Pottery marks dated ... 5, 

12 


clavicle .... 

17, 18 

xxi. 

Pottery marks, dynasty i . . . 

12 

Ivii. 

Leg and arm 


18 

xxii 

Types of slate palettes 7-48 . . 12, 23 

Iviii. 

Humerus .... 


18 

xxiii. 

i» M »> 5 ^—^9 • • 

23 

lix. 

Radius .... 

• 

18 

xxiv. 

» „ 90-9^ . . 12, 

23 

lx. 

Outlines of jaws 

25, 26 

XXV. 

Extra alabaster types 1-21 . 

13 

Ixi. 

Front and profile of skulls 649-822 


14 

xxvi. 

M l» »» 22-63 • • 

13 

Ixii. 

„ „ „ 675-877 


14 

xxvii. 

»• i» >1 • 

13 

Ixiii. 

„ 983-1288 


14 

xxviii. 

Extra pottery types 1-47 . 

13 

Ixiv. 

„ „ .. 1294-1406 


14 

xxix. 

» »» M 5 ^^^^ • 

13 

Ixv. 

„ 1408-1567 


14 

XXX. 

»> >» n 66—82 

13 

Ixvi. 

„ .. 1583-1896 


14 

xxxi. 

>» »i » SS “99 • 

13 

Ixvii. 

Top and base of skulls 649-893 


14 

xxxii. 

Register of burials, S.D. 77 . . . 

13 

Ixviii. 

„ .. » 920-1316 


14 

xxxiii. 

» it » • • • 

13 

Ixix. 

» I 3 «SHI 503 


14 

xxxiv. 

i> >1 ij • • • 

13 

Ixx. 

. 1516-1982 


14 

XXXV. 

>» a )i • • ■ 

13 

Ixxi. 

Skulls and foreign pottery 


II 

xxxvi. 

>1 » it ... 

13 

Ixxii. 

Curves of skull measures . 

• 

15 


vii 


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TARKHAN II 


INTRODUCTION 

1. The work described in this volume was in 
continuation of that already published in Tarkhan /, 
issued last year. The site is about thirty-seven miles 
south of Cairo, on the western bank, within half a 
mile of the railway. Mr. Engelbach arrived there 
at the end of November and built our huts. On 
December 4,1912 ,1 arrived with Mr. Horace Thomp¬ 
son and Mr. North. On the i6th the Rev. C. T. 
Campion joined our party, and gave most useful help 
in recording during the season. On the 12th Mr. 
Engelbach moved a few miles south to Riqqeh, to 
take up the excavation of a large cemetery there. 
His very successful work there will appear in the 
main volume of this year. Mrs. Flinders Petrie came 
on February 6, 1913, when the drawing began. On 
February 13 Mr. Thompson moved over to Riqqeh 
cemetery. The packing up began at the end of 
February, and I broke up camp and left for Memphis 
on March 18. I finally left for England on April 16. 
Mr. Campion and Mr. North were engaged with field 
recording; Mr. Thompson was entirely on bone 
measuring; my wife was on drawing, both of Tarkhan 
objects and also of coffins and tombs at Riqqeh; 
I was on the field-recording, men’s accounts, and 
photographing. 

2. This great cemetery appears to have been the 
burying-place for the temporary capital of the 
dynastic people, before the founding of Memphis, 
and gradually to have decayed during the first cen¬ 
tury of the growth of Memphis. To get a full view 
of the population at that critical time is of more 
importance than at any other period. The six 
hundred skeletons here recorded and discussed are 
a larger amount of material than has ever been 
obtained on one site restricted to so brief a period as 
about a century. Hence it seemed essential to 
discuss these remains at some length, as well as to 
provide all the facts which others can also study. 
This will account for the prominence given in this 

I 


volume to the physical anthropology. For general 
readers there are summaries of all these results in 
sections 47 and 58. The site and the period are 
alike the most important yet known for that subject. 
The register of the graves of this cemetery is probably 
the most complete that has yet been published. 

The site of Tarkhan is now exhausted, and we 
shall be moving the camps of the British School 
farther south, in the course of the general clearance 
of the country south of Cairo. The Gesiret Abusir, 
and the desert about the mouth of the Fayum will be 
our scope for the present winter. I only regret that 
having to attend unexpectedly to the preparation 
of the new quarterly journal. Ancient Egypt^ has 
shortened my working season by a month. 

CHAPTER I 

THE VALLEY CEMETERY 

3. When closing the excavations in 1912, it was 
believed that the wide valley, lying between the 
excavated parts, would be found to contain graves. 
By accident it had been slightly opened; but the 
remains found had been carefully reburied without 
attracting attention. As time would not allow then 
of doing more at Tarkhan, the visible cemetery on 
the hills was exhausted, and the valley left alone. 
The next season, accordingly, we went to Tarkhan to 
clear this valley. It proved to be a fair season’s 
work, as will be seen by the plan on pi. xlvi. Every 
grave there shown has been drawn; and all those 
which contained any early groups of remains we have 
published in the Register, pis. xxxii to xliii, classified 
according to date. The few graves of the xith 
dynasty, which were mainly at the east end, will 
appear in the volume Kafr Ammar^ which will con¬ 
tain all the later material of this region. 

The plan has the north upwards. The right 
hand, or eastern, end is that opening on the Nile 
valley. The western end divides into two lesser 


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2 


THE VALLEY CEMETERY 


valleys beyond the end of the graves. The relation 
of it to the rest of the cemetery is shown in the 
general map (xlviii). 

It is obvious that there has been a pathway up 
the valley, which was generally kept clear of burials ; 
in a few points, encroachments were made upon it, 
which can be dated in the case of grave 1441 which 
is of S.D. 80, while 1357 and 1463 at the sides are of 
S.D. 78. Thus when graves were perhaps fifty years 
old they were disregarded, the path swerved over 
them, and a later burial occupied the former path. 

The method of clearing this cemetery has not 
influenced our finding of graves more in one position 
than another. The valley was divided into parallel 
strips of fifty feet wide across it; every pair of diggers 
began at the north end of their strip and worked 
southward until it proved to be exhausted. Thus 
the pathway was crossed by each digger in his 
course of work. It was necessary to give every man 
his own section, in order to avoid their crowding 
together around any successful work. Every man 
wished to exhaust his own ground, and to prevent 
any one else poaching in it, and the whole was 
thoroughly explored. For purposes of planning, an 
axis-line was marked out from end to end of the 
valley, and a supplementary line at 100 feet north of 
that, for the more northerly parts. 

Each grave when opened was drawn on the 
register-card at its correct azimuth on the ground; 
the distance of the N.E. corner was then measured 
up to the axis, and along to the nearest boundary 
of the 50-foot strip; the length, breadth, and depth 
were then noted. The position of the skeleton and 
the pottery was drawn on the back of the card. Notes 
were filled in about disturbance, direction of head 
and face, sex, clothing, coffin ; old types of pottery or 
stone vases were identified from a set of plates of 
types, and recorded on the card, as well as any other 
objects found in the grave. The bones were then 
measured, removed, and the ground finally searched 
for beads and other small objects. 

4. Owing to the low position between hills, blown 
sand had continually drifted in the valley, and 
covered the graves. Along the southern side was a 
steep bank of rock, the wearing side of a former 
stream, about 10 feet high toward the eastern end. 
This bed of sand was but slight at the north side, 
but deepened to 4 or 5 feet on the southern side, com¬ 
pletely hiding the graves. It was necessary therefore 
to remove it entirely, or to search, by pits so close 
together that no grave could escape notice. The 


sand had preserved the graves in many places quite per¬ 
fectly, so that the upper parts were as complete as 
when first built. But the low position has been very 
injurious to the skeletons, the drainage of occasional 
rains soaking down to the valley floor. Thus the 
bones were all too much decayed to be lifted out, 
and only with great care could some of the skulls be 
preserved. 

5. The commoner graves were often found capped 
with a slightly domed crust of sand mixed with 
gypsum. At first I took it for the exudation of 
gypsum often found in Egypt at the drying layer 
near the surface. But the capping was so regular, 
and domed, over the graves that it must have been 
original. It was not apparently burnt plaster of 
Paris, as the sand was packed quite close in it 
and the gypsum was all crystalline. It seems, rather, 
as if the gypsum, abounding here naturally, had 
been collected, ground up with some water, and 
used to mix the sand into a paste to spread over 
the graves, where it soon hardened by re-crystallizing. 

6. The more important graves were covered with 
small mastabas, as shown in the photographs, pis. xii 
and xiii, and the plans, pi. xiv. Only one grave (the 
first of the plans, no. 1890), is not shown in the 
photographs. 

Beginning with the most fully illustrated grave, 
no. 1845, which occupies pi. xii, it should be said 
that this was the only mastaba containing objects 
which had not been plundered. The views are taken 
from the north, east, and west The first view shows 
the body in the grave, looking southwards ; the stack 
of offering jars lies outside of a little court for 
offerings which is seen beyond them. Below this 
is a nearer view of the grave alone. Here the 
skeleton is in place, an alabaster bowl lies between 
the face and knees, and a slate palette over that. 
Five jars stand around the body. The whole of the 
stone vases are shown at the foot of pi. iv. 

To the right, at the top, is the view of the west 
side of the grave, looking eastwards. This shows the 
stack of jars, the small offering court, and the two slits 
in the brickwork of the mastaba wall, for the offerings 
to reach the deceased. Below that is a nearer view of 
the offering court. 

At the bottom on the left is the grave, looking 
southward, with the eastern stack of offerings in place. 
On the right is a view of the grave from the eastern 
stack, looking westwards. 

The low wall seen around the grave was the 
retaining-wall of the mastaba, and was filled up with 


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SMALL MASTABA GRAVES 


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sand and gravel to the top, forming a flat-topped 
mound over the grave. This grave is of sequence 
date 77, or about a generation before Mena. The 
contents are now at Glasgow. 

In the plan, pi. xiv, no. II, will be seen another 
burial to the west. This was probably not connected, 
but the small model jars to the south of it seem to 
belong to this second burial, and not to no. 1845. 
This is the earliest, the richest in offerings, and the 
most complete and undisturbed mastaba known. 
The others will be noticed more briefly. 

7. On pi. xiii at the top is no. 1231, the plan of 
which is on pi. xiv, no. VI. It is built up against a 
scarp of rock on the north, and has the usual court¬ 
yard and stack of offerings on the east side. The 
filling originally covered it up to the top of the 
walling. The second slit was cleared after photo¬ 
graphing. 

Next are two views of no. 740, see plan III on 
pi. xiv. Neither in this nor the previous grave was 
there any burial left, beyond four jars which are shown 
in the views standing over the site of the grave. The 
walling was very perfect, having the whitewash still 
remaining on much of the brickwork. The two slits 
in the brickwork, for presenting the offerings, show 
very clearly in this. The stack of pottery includes a 
large round dish, with a little vase standing on the 
central cup of the dish. The walling round the grave 
was^ of course, filled up with sand, but was left empty 
after clearing the grave, in order to show the wall 
better. 

Grave 852 had been plundered partially (see 
plan IV, pi. xiv). It is notable for the delicately 
built little court of offerings, only one brick on edge 
for the height in front, and two bricks behind. 

Grave 1889, plan V, is mainly denuded, but the 
plan can be traced. The burials of graves 1889 and 
1890 had not been disturbed, for the good reason 
that there was nothing to be robbed from the bodies. 

Grave 1674 (not in these plans) was of the usual 
type, partly denuded ; the two cylinder jars standing 
by the pit were found in the grave. 

The plans on pi. xiv were all measured from two 
strings stretched at right angles, the measures being 
plotted direct on to squared paper without writing 
figures. This is the best method for small construc¬ 
tions, as the plan can be checked at once with the 
structure, and the nature of the curves and bends are 
drawn, finally, on the spot. The measuring from fixed 
cross-lines is the only way to record forms so irregular 
as these. All of these mastabas, after the planning. 


were well protected by a good depth of sand piled 
over them. 

It should be noted that the pottery of the offerings 
inside the graves is like that used in the towns, as 
shown by the town of Abydos. But the pottery of 
the stacks of subsequent offerings is much rougher, 
and such was never found used in the town. It was 
made on purpose for the festal offerings; and this 
indicates that when a pot was once used for an 
offering to the dead, it could not be taken again for 
the living, but had to be left as tabu, and therefore 
specially cheap pottery for this purpose was made. 
Types of pottery found in the stack are distinguished 
in the Register by being underlined. 


CHAPTER II 

THE GREAT MASTABAS 
(See pi. xviii) 

8. On the plateau level, south of the upper end 
of the valley cemetery, two large hollows were evident 
on the desert surface. In the first year of work these 
were supposed to be deep shafts, a class of tomb 
which was usually late, uninteresting, and unprofit¬ 
able. They were left, therefore, to be worked out at 
the close of the season, during the packing, when it 
is needful to employ men on large clearances requiring 
less personal attention. On starting digging there, a 
trace of brickwork was seen, and the men were there¬ 
fore placed upon that. Soon it was evident that, 
whatever the pits were, we had great mastabas to 
deal with. The outer sides were therefore carefully 
cleared and measured before emptying the pits, so 
that the deeper clearance should serve to rebury the 
detailed brickwork. In the best preserved parts the 
sides are still 3 feet high; but at the south end of 
2038, and the north end of 2050, it was very difficult 
to trace the original outline. Only by scraping the 
earth over very carefully could a slight difference of 
tint be seen at the old faces. It would have been 
impossible to recover the outline had not the panelled 
brickwork been built up from the foundation, with 
the pavement built against it, so that the panelling 
went down as much as i $ inches below the pavement 
level The denuded ground is full of sulphate of lime 
crystals, which have broken up the soil, so that in its 
powdery condition the traces of outline were the more 
difficult to find. 

The burial pits had been emptied in early times. 


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and were merely hollows in the gravel and rock, much 
weathered and irregular, about 20 feet deep. Nothing 
whatever of the original construction or burial was 
found in either of them. 

The construction was so evidently regular that 
the faces were measured on all sides from a string 
stretched tightly from end to end of each face. Thus 
the variations from a straight line could be accurately 
stated. The distances along the faces were measured 
with a new tape, the errors of which were much less 
than the variations of form. 

9. Before describing these mastabas, it will be 
well to state the general features of these and other 
mastabas with which they can be compared. 

(1) Gizeh, reign of Zet, 1897 ><831 inches. Bays 
10 at side, 4 at end. {Gizeh and Rifehy vi.) 

(2) Tarkhan, 1060 Zet, 1340 x 615. Bays 9 and 
4 or 5. {Tarkhan I, xviii.) 

(3) Tarkhan, 2038 Zet, 1265 x 510. Bays 9 and 

4. (Here.) 

(4) Tarkhan, 2050 Zet, 1393 x 596. Bays 10 and 

5. (Here.) 

(5) Gizeh, iiird dynasty, 2172 x 1113. Bays 
14 and 7. {Gizeh and Rifeh^ vii.) 

(6) ,Meydum, Nefermaat, 4552 x 2472. Bays 28 
and 15. {Medum, 15.) 

(7) Meydum, Rahotep, 2360 x 1330. 

Of these mastabas, all have three niches in the 
projecting part of the side; the two at Gizeh have 
three niches in the end projections ; but the two here 
described (3, 4) have only two niches in the end 
projections. Nos. 2, 6, and 7 are destroyed at the 
ends or not recorded. With this exception, the 
patterning of the faces of the mastabas is precisely 
the same from the middle of the ist to the beginning 
of the ivth dynasty. This shows that it was not 
merely a matter of the taste of the architect, but 
that it was a strong type with a structural meaning, 
which went on being copied. The same type is seen 
copied on steles of the ist to ivth dynasties, and 
on the sarcophagi of Menkaura and Khufu-ankh. 
The origin of it we shall deal with later, after de¬ 
scribing the details of these mastabas. 

10. Mastaba No. 2038.—The general appearance 
of this mastaba is seen in the views on pi. xv. The 
fender wall was found on three sides, but the south 
side is denuded so much that no trace of this wall 
remained. On the east side was a projecting 
entrance; to the north of this, piled against the 
outside of the fender wall, was a great stack of 
pottery of the offerings. Besides the pottery types 


stated in the Register pi. xliii, there were unbaked 
clay models of granaries, photographed on pi. xv. 
Within the fender wall, the corridor is blocked up 
with a mass of brickwork at the north-east comer. 
Just before this a later grave had been cut into the 
mastaba, and roughly bricked up. In the eastern 
corridor were two graves, 2039, 2040, of which the 
superstructures were in absolutely perfect condition, 
(see pi. xv), having evidently been covered with drifted 
sand very soon after building; probably they had 
never been seen since the year they were built. 
These are described below. 

The main mass of brickwork has a uniform 
pattern of panelling on both sides ; at the ends the 
projections are not so wide, and have only two niches 
instead of three. The style of construction of these 
niches may be seen in the photograph of the cleared 
brickwork of No. 2050, pi. xv, which will be described 
with that mastaba. The sizes of the bricks are the 
same in the mastaba, the fender wall, and the 
corridor tombs; they average 975 inches long, 47 
wide, 2*9 thick, varying at most about *2 more or 
less than the average. The difference between the 
length and double the breadth shows that they were 
planned to work with a mortar joint of *35 inches. 

The body of the mastaba was built up on the 
same plan from the foundation ; and at the south 
end, where denuded, it is seen to start 15 inches 
below the surrounding footing. The footing is 
10 inches wide, and raised about 3 inches above the 
corridor, as may be seen in the photographs, pi. xv. 
The thick wall of the mastaba varies from 133 inches 
thick on the north to 153 on the west, see pL xviii. 
The outside has the usual batter of about i in 12, the 
inside face is vertical, as in all Egyptian building. 
On the eastern face, the fourth bay from the south 
end is paved with wooden planks, like the fourth bay 
in mastaba 1060. This seems to have been the 
place for making offerings, though it is not opposite 
to the pit. The walls are much broken away on 
both sides near the pit. 

II. The interior space was filled with sand and 
gravel. Along the eastern side of the interior was 
a sloping descent, which, after reaching the east side 
of the pit, ended abruptly at about 100 inches over 
the floor of the pit, which is 220 inches deep. There 
are no internal walls or linings of brickwork in the 
pit, and it seems, therefore, that it contained a 
wooden chamber for the burial. As the length of 
the gangway only overlaps the side of the pit by 
30 inches, the wooden lining must have been close 


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to the rock side, certainly within lo inches, as so much 
as that would only leave 20 inches of doorway. The 
pit is 127 X 196 inches ; possibly the inside of the 
chamber was 5x8 cubits, 104 x 166 inches. 

The sides of the pit are very irregular, and have 
been hollowed out in many places to hold later 
burials, probably of the xith-xiith dynasties. The 
loose rubble in the holes was retained by rough 
walling of bricks, averaging 12*9 x 6*3 x 2*6 inches, 
much larger than those of the mastaba. 

12. The minor tombs 2039, 2040 in the east cor¬ 
ridor, are of much value as showing how the upper 
part of a tomb was finished. The top of the brick¬ 
work cover is slightly domed, the sides low and 
sloping inward, see pi. xv. On the front edge of 
each tomb are two small recesses, with a slightly 
raised part at the upper end of the hollow. These 
seem to be intended as false doors, places of ingress 
and egress for the ka. Some of the original coat of 
whitewash still remained in these recesses. 

After removing a thick coat of mud-plaster the 
bricks were seen, spaced loosely, somewhat apart, see 
xvi, I. There was a row of headers around the top, 
and 6x6 bncks laid parallel in the middle. In 
cross section they formed an arch (xvi, 2) sufficiently 
strong to hold up> after the heap of sand had sunk 
away from supporting them. 

On removing the sand to about 3 feet deep, some 
jars were found, xvi, 3, 4, one of which had the carry¬ 
ing rope on it These lay on a mat of papyrus; the 
mat had been much too long for the grave, being 
apparently a sleeping mat; hence it was bent across, 
and turned up at one end. 

On removing the mat, there appeared the lid of 
a wooden coffin, formed of loose boards (see 2040 
in pi. xvi, 5); the mat was close enough to prevent 
more than a very small amount of sand and gravel 
from falling through. On lifting the boards, the 
burial was seen (as in 2039, pi. xvi, 6 kept at Cairo). 
In front of the body, 2039, were calf-bones of an 
offering; a handful of ribs lay upon the body and 
behind the elbow. In front of 2040 was a leg-bone 
of a calf. Both bodies had the head to north, face 
east, on left side. Inside the coffin, 2039, were two 
cylinder jars,^50/, and a large jar on the pelvis. 
Outside, on the north, were pieces of an alabaster 
bowl, 24 e/. Inside the coffin, 2040, were six pottery 
jars, as registered, and at the S.E. corner an alabaster 
dish, 9 h. This burial is kept as a group at Munich. 

A curious feature in each grave was a vertical reed 
in one corner, S.W. in 2039, S.E. in 2040. This rose 


up to the brick covering, and it maylbe supposed that 
it was put in the corner before filling the grave, in 
order to mark the exact position for the place of the 
superstructure. It may have been, however, for a 
path for the spirit. In Central Africa those who die 
of small-pox have a reed stuck in the side of the 
grave ; along this reed the disease can escape. 
(Werner, British Central Africa^ p. 289.) 

The coffins were very slightly made of loose, thick 
boards, scarcely connected with a few dowels; the 
end boards were slightly recessed into the sides, the 
ends of each board left rough. The purpose was 
simply to retain a clear space for the body, and the 
coffins were probably only put together in the pit, 
and had no separate existence previously. The 
boards had mostly been re-used, having the slits in 
them for bindings, which proved that they had been 
house-timbers. 

13. Regarding the period of this burial there was 
no dating material in the mastaba. The two sub¬ 
sidiary burials are of S.D. 80, in the reign of Zet, by 
the forms of the pottery; and the offerings laid 
outside the mastaba are of S.D. 81, or perhaps of 80; 
but they may easily be slightly later than the mastaba 
itself. This may therefore be put to the reign of 
Zet, like the mastaba in the valley at Gizeh. The 
pot-marks on the external offerings (see pi xx) have 
been compared with those of the Royal Tombs: three 
are of the reign of Den, and three of Semer-khet 
This evidence is entirely independent of that of 
pottery types, and agrees with the evidence from the 
forms of the jars. No other graves were found 
around this mastaba, though we searched the whole 
floor of the corridor. 

14. In the mastaba 2050, the general design was 
closely the same, except that there was no sloping 
descent to the chamber, and no external vestibule to 
the corridor. The arrangement of the brickwork is 
shown in detail from a bay of the eastern face, 
of which I cleaned the joints (see the photograph 
XV, 5). This view of the layer of bricks is taken 
looking rather forward, so that the vertical faces at 
the sides of the bay appear to converge below. The 
main false door recess is seen in the middle, at the 
sides are the narrow recesses which border it, and 
the recesses in the sides of the bay; farther out, on 
the right, is seen a narrow recess of the projecting 
part It will be observed that two sizes of bricks 
were used, one of 9*65 x 4*6 x 2 6 inches for the 
body of the mastaba; while the more detailed work 
of the narrow recesses and projections was formed 


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of lesser bricks, 6*8 x 3*3 x 2*6. The difference 
between the two sides in laying the bricks is due 
to their breaking joint between the courses, and 
different course patterns occurring on opposite sides. 
It should be said that in the plans, pi. xviii, where 
vague rounded outlines are put in, the detail cannot 
be found, owing to decay or denudation ; the vague 
outline is given to complete the plan to the eye, 
where no measurement of details was possible. 

15. Along the north corridor, slight traces of 
three raised squares of brickwork were noticed. On 
cutting behind these, three graves were found, 
numbered 2051, 2053, 2054. The arrangement of 
these was closely the same as in the two graves just 
described. 

Grave 2051 is opposite the S.E. corner of the 
mastaba. The fender wall has been entirely 
destroyed here, but the grave was intact. On clear¬ 
ing it, jars were found lying on the mat (xvii, i). 
Removing the mat, the coffin lid appeared (xvii, 2). 
Opening the coffin, the body was found complete 
(xvii, 4), head to north, face east, the left hand placed 
on the forehead, the right on the knees. A broken 
walking-stick lay in front of it. Two jars, 503-, 65 
were behind the head, 65 1 before the head, and 6$ k 
before the feet. The coffin was 349 x 190 x 14*6 
outside. (Horniman Museum.) 

Grave 2053 was similar. A large jar 76m lay on 
the mat over the coffin. The body (xvii, 6) was a 
little shifted by the head rolling forward. At the 
head was the jar 65 «, before the feet three jars, 50 
Below the feet and pelvis was a leg-bone of a calf. 
The coffin measured 34*2 x 20 5 x 18*4 inches inside. 
(Brussels.) 

Grave 2054 had a grass mat, like those made 
to-day, in place of the papyrus mat of the other 
graves, half-way down, upon the coffin (xvii, 3). On 
lifting this, the loose boards over the coffin were seen. 
On raising them, the coffin appeared nearly empty ; 
but in the N.W. corner (xvii, 5) lay the bones 
of a duck; with them were two jars 59^, 65/. 
The coffin was of the full size for human burial, 
measuring 38 to 40x22*6x19 inches, larger in fact 
than the other two coffins. (Cambridge, Ethnological 
Museum.) 

16. In the south corridor was the most remark¬ 
able grave (2052). A long low bench of brickwork 
projected from the fender wall, see the end view xix, i, 
and the front view in xix, 2. It was divided across 
by two shallow grooves, in what had originally been 
three equal parts; the east end had, however, been 


broken away in the first digging here, before any 
building was known. 

In the plan xviii will be seen the dotted outline 
of the pit below, and the full-line outline of the brick 
bench. The fender wall is omitted above the pit 
in order to show its south side. Along the rest of the 
fender, the line shows the foot of it, and the edge of 
the black gives the top edge of it 

On digging into this grave we found, first, three 
heads of donkeys, placed one under each division 01 
the bench, lengthways, facing east. Removing these, 
a wedge-shaped trench was opened containing the 
bodies of the donkeys, back up, with the legs doubled 
up beneath them. The skull and bones of fore-leg 
and hind-leg are shown in xix, 3. These are the 
only ancient skeletons of donkeys yet discovered in 
Egypt; they are now in the Cairo Museum, and the 
Natural History Museum, South Kensington. 

From the carpful mode of burial of these donkeys, 
with a regularly built grave over them, and from the 
burial of a duck in a wooden coffin of full human 
size, we must conclude that these were the favourite 
animals buried with the master, much as the house¬ 
hold were buried with the kings of this age. 

The later history of this mastaba was curious. It 
had been completely cleared of sand between the 
walls, except at the north end. Large quantities of 
straw, and of twigs for fuel, had been stored in it, 
much as the Egyptian now stores fuel in pits on the 
desert. Afterwards these deposits were covered with 
blown sand. The central pit had been entirely 
rifled, and from it were dragged out a great pile of 
linen cloth of various qualities, and the fine set of 
alabaster jars, iv, 2. Also a wooden handle of an 
adze, iii, 5, and another wooden handle, viii. 

Near the western side of this mastaba, a burial of 
a man in a basket had been placed in a pit in the 
brickwork. As the skeleton and basket were perfectly 
preserved, I solidified them with paraffin wax, and 
this burial is now complete in the British Museum. 

17. Having now described these mastabas, there 
remain the questions of the accuracy and method of 
the building of them. At first view, it was evident 
that they were very regular and straight, and measures 
were therefore taken to test the precision of the build¬ 
ing. For the sides, a thin white string was stretched 
tight from end to end, as nearly parallel to the face 
as could be estimated. Then offsets were taken from 
that to the face and to the depth of the bays. The 
strings proved on measurement to be placed parallel 
to the average face to within *1 inch, while the varia- 


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tions were up to *4 at either end ; hence the string is 
taken here as parallel to mean face. 

First, the mean variation of the outer faces from a 
true line was measured at about two dozen places. 
This was, in fractions of an inch : 



Outer face. 

In face 
of bay. 

Recess 
of bay. 

2050 s. 

. *23 

•5 

•7 

2050 E. 

. '47 

•6 

1*4 

2038 E. 

. *44 

•54 

•9 

2038 W. 

. *57 

•73 

13 


Thus on each side measured, the outer face was the 
more accurate line, and the back of the false-door 
recesses the least accurate. This proves that the 
outer faces were the construction lines, and the bays 
were measured off from them. The average error, of 
less than half an inch on a hundred feet, when build¬ 
ing in mud brick, with a thick coating of mud plaster, 
is very good. 

The accuracy of the spacing of the divisions was 
measured with a new tape, and, in the most accurate 
part, checked by a wooden rod the whole length of a 
block-and-bay. In the first place, it is clear that the 
lengths were set off from one end, leaving often a 
surplus or deficit of i to 3 inches on reaching the 
other end. It may be that the bounding faces were 
not built accurately in line with the marks of setting 
out the work, but in that case we should find large 
errors at both ends, whereas they occur only at one 
end. To reach the mean dimension intended, we 
must, then, exclude these terminal errors. We shall 
call a bay and projection together a “ group.” 
Obviously a group can be measured in two ways, 
according as we start from either end ; each side of 
a bay will serve as a point in one of the two series. 
Both series A and B are stated here; the mean 
values of the dimensions are given, with the mean 
error of work put below each. 



Series A. 

Series B. 

Bay. 

Projection. 

2050 S. . 

107*6 

107*3 

46*4 

60*6 


*2 

•2 

*6 

•8 

2050 E. . 

. 130*7 

130*4 

477 

82*6 


•4 

•5 

*8 

•6 

2050 W. 

130*9 

130*7 

47*9 

82*8 


•7 

*6 

•5 

•5 

2038 E. . 

. 130*6 

130*5 

46*1 

84*8 


*6 

1*7 

1*4 

•9 

2038 W. 

. 130*7 

1311 

47*0 

83*4 


•5 

•8 

•5 

1*0 


The first result is that the errors of the whole 
groups are, in all but one side, much less than the 
errors of the constituent bay and projection. The 
groups were therefore set out as a whole, and then 
subdivided. The east front of 2038 shows how the 
north sides of the bays (series A) were three times 
as accurate as the south sides of the bays (B); 
this indicates that a rod of the length of a group 
(1306 inches) was used to set out the work. Had 
it been laid out by a long measure like a tape, 
both series would have been equally accurate. There 
is, however, another view to be taken into account. 
The total lengths may be right, and the sub¬ 
divisions badly made. On testing this, we find that 
the group by the total is in 2050 E, 130*65; in 
2050 W, 131*0; in 2038 E, 1310; in 2038 W, 1310. 
The agreement of three out of four examples seems 
to show that the total was scrupulously laid out, and 
then subdivided less carefully, perhaps by a cord. 

The lengths on the long sides of the mastabas 
are evidently intended to be alike. The average of 
all is 130*7 (mean error *15) for the group; composed 
of 47*2 (m. e. *6) for the bay, and 83*4 (m. e. *7) for 
the projection. These dimensions remind us of the 
frequent dimensions in the Great Pyramid, which 
in the best examples are 47*04 and 82*52. The 
proportions of 7 to ii thus used, if followed here, 
would give on 130*7, 47*52 + 83*16; or on 131*0, 
47*63 + 83*37. These dimensions are far within the 
mean error of the work. Thus it seems that the 
cubit of 20*79 was divided into 7 palms, and the bay 
was 16 palms, while the projection was 4 cubits. 
Whether at this date the ratio of radius to circum¬ 
ference had influenced the choice of these figures, we 
cannot say; looked at from that point of view, the 
projection is the diameter of a circle, whose half 
circumference is the length of the whole group. 

Lastly, the depths of the bay, and false-door 
recess, from the front face, are : 


2050 S 

20*8 

31*9 

2050 E 

20*9 

29*3 

2038 E 

21*5 

31*4 

2038 W 

21*7 

31*3 


The errors of these from a straight line have been 
already stated at the beginning of these measure¬ 
ments. 

The squareness of the mastabas was measured by 
putting marks on corresponding faces of the bays on 
opposite sides, and then reading the angle between 
this cross-line and the side face by a box-sextant 


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18. Besides the two great mastabas there were also 
other tombs, which were probably similar, but which 
are so much denuded that little or nothing remains 
of the structure. To the west of 2038 was a deep pit 
in ^the rock (No. 2056), 183 x no inches, or over 

15 feet on the north and 9 feet on the east. At 58 to 
80 inches from the west side was a brick cross-wall 
from north to south; the western space was sub¬ 
divided again into two offering chambers, the northern 
64 inches long x 58 wide, the southern 46 x 58 
inches, with a wall 12 inches thick between them. 
These walls were built upon 30 inches of sand in the 
pit, and were 40 inches high. In the north chamber 
was a bowl of black and white porphyry, as type 
24^, but twice as large. 

To the west ofmastaba 2050 was a pit (No. 2055) 
241 X 103 inches, or over 20 feet on the north and 
8 feet on the east. It seemed to have had a brick 
mastaba over it, of which the only remains were the 
edge of the footing at 170 from the pit on the east, 
and the fender wall 38 outside of that The pit was 
160 deep on the east, for 43 inches; after a rock wall 
of 18 inches thick, it deepened to 195 in a middle 
chamber 120 N. x 95 W.; another rock wall of 

16 inches cut off a western chamber 44 x 95. In the 
large chamber was the alabaster stool, pi. i (Cairo 
Museum), and portions of another. From the pottery 
found loose in the filling of the chamber this is to be 
dated to S.D. 81, or the reign of Den-Setui. A large 
quantity of worked flints were found, see pi. vi. 

19. A fine grave, 1973, of this age was found on 
the top of the plateau, between these mastabas and 
the mastaba 1060 found last year. It had probably 
been looted, so far as the body is concerned, for the 
bones were scattered, and there was a small hole in 
the covering; but the funeral offerings were complete. 
After clearing about 6 feet of gravel we reached a 
bed of brickwork, which had been only slightly dis¬ 
turbed and replaced. On removing this, we found a 
pit cut in the limestone rock (pi. xix, 4), which had 
two very thick bed-poles, lying from end to end to 
support the roofing. The top of the coffin appeared, 
but there was no lid, and it was full of sand and 
gravel. A large store of big jars stood at the north 
end. The pot-marks on these are given in pi. xx. 
On clearing out the coffin, xix, 5, two more jars 
were found, and others lay along the east side. In 
the south-east corner was a large group of stone 
vases and dishes, shown in pi. iv; four cylinder jars, 
four dishes of slate and alabaster, two bowls of 
alabaster, and a vase of yellow limestone, broken. 


This is the largest group ot fine vases that I have 
ever seen from one tomb. Forty flint flakes also lay 
in this corner, pi. vii. The coffin was peculiarly 
made (pi. viii), the ends halved in to the sides, and 
then a square V-trough of wood covered the corners 
and hid the joint. This covering was matched by an 
equal projection, as a footing around the base. The 
whole group of stone vases is now in the Fine Art 
Museum, Boston, Mass. The coffin was too much 
rotted to be removed. 

20. We may now turn to the question of the origin 
of this architectural form of panelled mastaba. In the 
previous year’s work we found many examples of 
the house timbers, which had lashing-holes in them 
adapted to building up into a panelled wall (Tark^ 
han /, pi. ix, x). These completely confirm the 
conclusions from the forms in stone and brick 
(especially the sarcophagus of Khufu-ankh) which 
point to a wooden origin. It has been objected 
that such forms of brickwork are known in other 
countries, from Mesopotamia to Germany. But in 
all such cases it is probable that wooden architecture 
was the earlier, and originated the type. Owing to 
the modern spread of brick and stone work, the 
older wooden architecture has fallen out of memory 
in Europe. But when we look at the great royal 
tombs entirely built of wood in the ist dynasty, at 
the magnificent wooden palace of Attila surrounded 
by a great city of wood, at the glorious wooden 
temples of Japan, at the wooden architecture of early 
India, further India and Polynesia, at the wooden 
castles and fortresses of Saxon England, or at the 
wooden architecture of Norway, we see that wood is 
the essential building material of early man, and 
that brick and stone are but modern substitutes. 

21. The mastaba, then, is the substitute for the 
great wooden houses of the king or chief; and as the 
special type of bays and projections is found to be 
constant for many generations, it evidently was 
copied from some fixed type of wooden building. 
We must remember that a great chief’s house was 
used by night as well as by day. By day, in Egypt, 
it was needful to be able to open the house widely, 
or to close it altogether, so as to let in abundance 
of cooling breezes or to keep out dust-storms and 
extreme heat. It was thus requisite to have the 
system of a great number of small doorways easily 
closed ; usually with a single board door, and there¬ 
fore narrow. Sometimes these openings were wider, 
and were then barred across to prevent men and 
animals entering, as is shown in the house model in 


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a wooden coffin (Tarkhan /, xxviii, i). Thus the 
row of bays, each with a door recess, and panelling 
of overlapping boards on each side of it, became 
the type for free cooling and ventilation, with 
the power of quickly closing the openings against 
dust-storms. 

The use by night is essentially for sleeping 
quarters for the chiefs retainers, so as to secure his 
safety. In all parts of the world—be it Polynesia, 
Africa, or in the life of the Norse sagas—the chief 
sleeps with his household of retainers, ready for 
fight if he be attacked. Where no fire-hearth is 
the focus, they would naturally sleep round the sides 
of the great hall. Each space between the openings 
of the doors would be a sleeping place; and then—as 
now—the Egyptian disliked draughts, and would 
protect himself with a screen from the door opening 
at his head and feet. Hence would naturally arise 
the type of sheltered sleeping places, recessed back 
in the hall from the door openings; and thd type of 
external projections and bays of doorways would be 
the necessary result of the utilitarian necessities of 
the chiefs household by night and by day. 

The girdle of graves in a row around all sides of 
the mastaba (as at Gizeh) for the long sleep of the 
household, were copied from the custom of sleeping 
all round the great hall at night Probably at first a 
chief was buried in a pit in the midst of his house, 
much as various burials in the floors of houses have 
been found in Egypt, and are usual in other lands. 
Then a brick substitute for the house was built, when 
the successor wished to keep the actual living house, 
and to ensure greater safety for the deceased chief. 

We see thus, in the necessities of the case, a com¬ 
plete explanation for the forms of the early Egyptian 
architecture, and no feature or requirement appears 
to be left outstanding and unexplained. 


CHAPTER III 

THE DESCRIPTION OF PLATES 

22. The plates under this head will be described 
in order, as they stand. 

PL i. Amulets from grave 1552, S.D. 77, full size. 
At the top is a falcon of sard, and a long pendant; 
another pendant is at the side; next is a conical 
piece of copper, then a seated baboon of copper; 
lastly two beetles cut in a dark green stone, apparently 
serpentine stained with copper. The baboon is the 
2 


oldest copper amulet known. (University College, 
London.) 

At the right. One of the lids of very thin beaten 
copper. As such are not known to fit vases found in 
the same graves, it seems likely that they were in¬ 
tended for covering the powdered eye-paint on the 
palettes. Small ivory vase, grave 1419, S.D. 77, 
(see iii, 9) (Cairo). Ivory box formed of 5 plates 
of ivory, and a lid : the sides were joined by diagonal 
pins which have perished; it has been stained green 
by copper ore lying near it (See iii, ii.) Grave 
1479, S.D. 78 (Univ. Coll.). Spoon of ivory formed as 
two hands for the bowl, and arms for the stem (see 

4) \ grave 1805, S.D. 78 (Manchester). Spoon of 
ivory with square bowl (see ii, 3); grave 1331, S.D. 
77 (Cape). Small ivory spoon with wavy handle 
(see ii, 9); grave 1660, S.D. 77 (Manchester). Disc of 
ivory, engraved with lines, perhaps a spindle whorl, 
(see ii, 14); grave 1205, S.D. 78-9 (Cape). Head of 
an animal in clay. 

Ivory spoon with engraved bowl (see ii, 5), 
showing three birds, a crocodile, and four leaves, 
a pattern entirely new to us. Grave 1925, S.D. 78 
(Cairo). 

Below is a limestone kneeling figure, closely like 
the large figure found at Hierakonpolis ; the very 
large ears are characteristic of the early figures. 
Grave 1333, no dating ; this figure was placed before 
the face, scale J. (Univ. Coll.) The stone to the 
right of it is natural, but seems to have been kept for 
its half-animal form, like the baboon stones at Abydos. 
Below are two ivory bangles, with a curious knob on 
each. All of grave 1333. 

To the right is an entire group from grave 1528, 
S.D. 80?. Fish palette at top, with jasper pebble 
grinder. Four ivory bangles. Between them two 
amethyst beads, and two sard buttons (one with 
piercing upward); under those is a sard scorpion 
amulet and two pendants. Below are pieces of 
galena and iron oxide, and small green glazed beads. 
At the base is a copper bangle and two alabaster 
jars. (Munich.) 

Alabaster stool or low table (see viii), grave 
2055, S.D. 81: this form was quite unknown before. 
(Cairo.) 

Copper knife, the largest known (see iii, 6): 
grave 1917, S.D. 77 (Manchester). Copper adze of 
the largest size, like one found last year: grave 1933, 
S.D. 78 (Cairo). 

PI. ii. Most of the spoons have been referred to 
in the previous plate. The rest have their grave 


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THE DESCRIPTION OF PLATES 


numbers and sequence dates placed with them, so 
that description is needless. 

23. PI. iii. I, is a bird’s bone sheath for, 2, 

an ivory hair-pin, grave 753, S.D. 77 (Cape). 3, 4, 
two ivory rods, grave 1304, S.D. 78. 5, wooden 

handle for a light adze, grave 2050, S.D. 80. 6, 7 

(see pi. i), 8, shell armlets, grave 702, S.D. 77; such 
were very common, but in almost all instances the 
shell flakes into layers owing to the damp. 9, ii 
(see i). 10, ivory ring with four birds* heads, com¬ 

pare ivory ring with four hawks from Abadiyeh 
(Diospolis ix, 23) and with two lions (Naqada^ 
Ixiv, 78); grave 644, S.D. 81. (Cambridge.) 

PI. iv. The glazed vases will be found given in 
detail in pi. v. The order here, in rows, is on pi. v, 
5, 8 ,6, 7; 1,4, 3 . 2; 10, II, 12. 

The group of alabaster to the right shows the 
splendid vases found with a great mass of linen, 
thrown out of the chamber of the great mastaba 
2050 (see Chapter II). At the left is a small lid of 
yellow limestone. The second of the four alabaster 
jars is of very unusual form, and contained ointment; 
the group is not yet sent to a museum. 

The fragment of a vase with the name of Normer 
was found in grave 1982, with a large group of 
objects, S.D. 78 (Reading). 

The largest group of stone vases was found in an 
unplundered private grave on the hill, 1973, see base 
of pi. xix. The whole group is shown together here, 
pi. iv. The first, pear-shaped, vase is of yellow lime¬ 
stone ; the cylinder jars are alabaster, as also are the 
two top bowls, and two right hand bowls; the two 
left hand bowls are of slate. (Boston.) 

At the bottom on the left is a green-glazed pot, 
imitating a coiled basket and lid; grave 2057, S.D. 77. 
(Manchester.) Next is a similar pot of black clay 
with white pricked pattern; grave 2033, ^^Lte. 
(Univ. Coll.) To the right are the three alabaster 
vases and slate palette from grave 1870 (scale i : 5). 

PI. V. The green glazed vases were found 
surprisingly often in the valley cemetery, which was 
by no means a place for the upper classes. They 
show that glazing was a common art at the beginning 
of the ist dynasty, and not restricted to the wealthy. 
The numbers of the graves and the dates are placed 
on the drawings. The distribution of these has been, 
4, 6, 7, 10, Cairo; i, 5, Manchester; 2, Leipzig; 
3, Munich; 8, University College, London; 9, 
Brussels ; ii. New York. 12, 13, see pi. iv. 

24. PI. vi. The corner of a slate, with an outline 
figure of a man, holding a mace and a staff; the 


dress is the primitive girdle with ends tied and 
hanging down in front, such as continued to be worn 
by fishermen in the pyramid age. This slate shows 
that such was the usual dress for active life in the 
Mena period. It is from grave 1579, S.D. 78. 
(Univ. Coll.) 

Two large jars were found, of very fine clay, and 
beautifully made as to solidity, regularity, and smooth¬ 
ness. As both bore royal names (pi. vi, 2, 3), marked 
before baking, it seems that such jars were produced 
at the royal pottery (see forms in pi. xxx, 74 b.g.; 
and see copies in xx, i, 2). One bore a name hitherto 
unknown, which seems to read the forepart 
of a lion, probably meaning chief or leader, later 
written hdti-o, A mace is drawn at the side of the 
falcon name. (Univ. Coll.) The other has the name 
nar or nor^ written with the fish ; and below the 
falcon name, mer^ the hoe. The style of this accords 
with the previously found jars marked by Nor-mer 
(Tarkan /, xxxi, 68; Royal Tombs I, xliv, i); and 
the writing of the fish alone in the palace sign, 
accords with the sealings in Royal Tombs II, xiii, 
91-2. The hoe mer must then be equivalent to 
the chisel mer which usually accompanies the fish in 
the King’s name. This supports the idea that NOR 
alone is the falcon name, and that MER is a second 
name, a personal name, or nesut name, or bati name, 
or uazet name, or any other of the separate names 
that may have belonged to this king in one of the 
early principalities. If mer is here a personal name, 
then we should also regard hez as a personal name 
of HATI. The two names must both be before Aha, 
as from his time onward the palace top was always 
flat. As Nor immediately precedes Aha, from all we 
yet know, therefore Hati must be placed shortly 
before Nor. (Manchester.) 

Lower on the plate are alabaster vases. A finely 
veined bowl from grave 1908, S.D. 81 ?, scale 1:4, is 
now at Brussels. Beside it is a bowl from grave 
1845, together with the slate and small cup below 
(see sect. 6), S.D. 77 (Munich). The tall vase from 
grave 1801, S.D. 78, is curious for having a circular 
patch inserted ; scale i : 4 (Univ. Coll.). By this 
is a portion of a ribbed lid of yellow limestone, pro¬ 
bably an imitation of a coiled basket lid ; grave 1552, 
S.D. 77, scale I : 4. The cones of alabaster below are 
described with pi. ix. 

The large group of flakes is part of a great 
quantity found in a mastaba grave 2055; for these 
and the rest, see the next plate. 

25. PI. vii. Only one pear-mace (i) was found 


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OBJECTS ON PLATES VII TO IX 


II 


in the cemetery : it is of the usual white limestone, 
from grave 985, S.D. 78 (Brussels). A rough disc 
mace (2) was in grave 1666, undated. The butt (3), 
grave 738, of S.D. 78, is like the knife in Abydos I, 
xvi, II, of S.D. 77. The long scraper (5), grave 1247, 
S.D. 78 (Reading), is like Ab, xvi, 4 of S.D. 78. The 
end of a thin flat knife (6), grave 619, S.D. 77, is 
like a piece found at Abadiyeh of S.D. 78 {Diospolisy 
vii, U 74). The rough knife (7), grave 1344, S.D. 77, 
is like Ab. xvi, 17, 47 of S.D. 76-7 and 77-8. The 
curiously flat square-handled knife (8), grave 1266, 
S.D. 78 (Cairo), is like Ab. xvi, 43, of S.D. 78. The 
finely curved knife (9), grave 1982 (Reading), must 
be dated to S.D. 81 by the general contents of the 
grave, and the piece of a jar of Normer must have 
been a century old when buried. The knife is 
exactly like that in grave 158, dated to S.D. 81 
(Tarkhan /, vii, 6), and is well dated by the butt and 
the tip to S.D. 80 and 81 (see those of the reigns of 
Zet and Den, Abydos I, xiv). It is also like one 
in the Gizeh mastaba dated to Zet {Gizeh and Rifehy 
iv). Thus out of six flint knives, closely comparable 
to other dated ones of Upper Egypt, four are of the 
same date as those, one is a stage earlier, another is 
a stage later. It must be noticed (i) how very 
closely flint knives can be dated by style and form, 
usually to a single step of sequence; (2) how quickly 
style changed, for such close dating to be possible; 
(3) how there is not the least lag in style between 
Abydos, Tarkhan and Gizeh, but that a style spread 
over the whole country in a single generation. The 
rougher flint flakes and scrapers, vii, 10-51, are 
much less detailed and less typical. Grave 2055 is 
dated to S.D. 81 ; and when we compare the scrapers 
of Merneit {Abydos I, xv) and that of xxi, 123, we 
cannot say that there is any discrepancy in date. 

26. PI. viii. First are two elevations, and a 
plan, of a curious wooden coffin, in the fine grave 
1973, where the great group of stone vases, pi. iv, 
was found ; see the views at foot of pi. xix. This 
coffin had a raised footing cut in one block with the 
sides and ends; and the same appearance was carried 
out, up the corners, by angle pieces, each cut out of 
a single block (see plan). These angle pieces thus 
hid the joints at the corners. It was too much 
decayed to be brought away. 

The two stone tables on slight feet are similar to 
the wooden table found last year {Tarkhan /, xi, 23, 
xii, 7). The upper stone one here, pi. viii, from grave 
1982, is of S.D. 81, and the table from grave 136 is 
also of S.D. 81. 


The alabaster stool with legs is described with 
pi. i; and the conical lid with pi. iv. The wooden 
handle was also found in the same tomb, the great 
mastaba 2050. 

PI. ix. In grave 2039 was a portion of a clay 
sealing shown in fig. i. It most resembles in style 
the sealing 28 in Royal Tombs I. This is of Merneit, 
corresponding to the beginning of 81 {Tarkhan /, 3), 
and grave 2039 is estimated at 80 by the pottery; 
but its great mastaba to which it belongs is 81. The 
styles of seals thus agree in their dating at Abydos 
and Tarkhan. Fig. 2 is on the alabaster vase of 
Normer, and already described in pi. iv. 

Fig. 3 is a painted inscription on a cylinder jar, 
grave 1549, S.D. 78, closely like the inscriptions of 
King KA at Tarkhan {T. /, xxxi) and Abydos 
{Ab. I, iii). This, however, appears to read NR, 
and it seems as if it might be a variant of the name 
of Nor usually written with the fish. It is of the 
same age as that king, by the pottery in the grave. 
(Univ. Coll.) 

The alabaster cones 4 to 9 were found singly or 
in pairs (717 and 728). Being thus found in four 
different graves, and never more than two together, 
it seems that they are not likely to be gaming pieces. 
It is possible that they may be weights. The agree¬ 
ment of 985 and 980 grains is very close; the double 
of 478*2 is 956*4. Yet 845*3 872*6 can hardly 

be any other multiple of the standard ; if so, a great 
variation must have existed. 144*8 is a sixth of 
869 grains, close to 872*6. The most likely multiples 
are accordingly entered below these, with the unit 
suggested by each. There is a possibility that the 
apparent weights found at Naqada might follow the 
same unit {Naq. 54) and be 20 x 141*5, 50 x 153*8, 
4 X 147*5,25 X 159*6 grains. These suggest an early 
form of the qedet of 140-154 grains. At present all 
we can do is to record, and wait till more definite 
evidence is found. (Univ. Coll.) 

The pottery 10-19 is of a class different from any 
yet known in Egypt, and seems to be foreign; the 
photographs of it are in pi. Ixxi. The clay is very 
smooth, usually light brown, but varying to buff in 
fig. II. The band of colour is usually red haematite, 
but in fig. II it has been reduced to black in the 
baking. The fabric is thin, and in some it is very 
thin and hard. The only suggestion that has been 
made about it is that it bears a resemblance to 
Euphratean pottery. The date is all of S.D. 81, in 
graves 1904 (Univ. Coll.), 1907 (Munich), 1923 
(Brussels), 1942 (Leipzig); 1910 (Cairo), 1919 (Man- 


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THE DESCRIPTION OF PLATES 


Chester), 1957 (Cairo) are not dated. All of these 
graves arc about half-way up the eastern slope of 
hill Q, see map pi. xlviii. In two instances, alabaster 
vases were found with the foreign pots, and are given 
here in figs. 13, 16. 

Another group of foreign pottery of much later 
date may be noticed, figs. 20-24. The black-ware 
handled vase is clearly late Hyksos (Gizeh and Rifek 
viii B, 91), and the little bilbils^ 22, 23, are Syrian 
(Gizeh and Rif eh viii, 51, viii A, 67, viii B, 99, 101). 
With these was the thin brown bowl of Egyptian 
style, degraded from the thin bowls of xiith dynasty 
(see Gizeh and Rif eh xxv, 27). A very small alabaster 
kohl pot, 24, was in the group; and also a scarab 
reading Er.dy.ray a blue glazed pendant and two 
little glazed cups, shown in the photograph pi. Ixxi. 
(Univ. Coll.; i bilbil Cairo.) 

Fig. 25 is a later Syrian flask, of the xviiith 
dynasty (Cairo). The head-rests 26-28 are probably 
of iind to ivth dynasty. The form of the columns in 
28 is very interesting architecturally, as they are 
fluted with very narrow raised ribs on the cylindrical 
surface, and end above in a square abacus. There 
are no actual columns preserved anywhere near this 
age, though indicated in the Meydum hieroglyph; 
hence this model is of great value as showing the 
development of the wooden architecture which has 
perished. 

FIs. X, xi, will be dealt with in discussing the 
skeletons and method of burial, in chapter V. The 
five attitudes are described in sect 48. 

Pis. xii, xiii, xiv have been dealt with in the 
account of the Valley Cemetery, chapter I. 

Pis. XV, xvi, xvii, xviii, xix have been dealt with 
in the account of the Great Mastabas, chapter II. 

27. In pis. XX, xxi, the marks on pottery are 
classified according to their age. The greater part 
are from the large graves 2050 and 2026 of S.D. 80, 
and 2038, 1982, 1973 of S.D. 81. We may compare 
them with those in the Royal Tombs. 

Nos. I and 2 have been described in pi. iv. 


Fig. 

J^oyai Tombs L 

Kings. 

S.D. 

9 

209-216 

Zet-Merneit 

80-81 

10 

1015 

Zet 

80 

11 

1073-8 

Zet-Azab 

80-81 

36 

1362-3 

Merneit 

early 81 

37 

552-565 

Zet-Azab 

80-81 

38 

960-3 

Merneit 

early 81 

39,41 

I020-1 

Merneit, Semerkhet 81,82 

42 

568-573 

Zet-Merneit 

80—81 


Fig. 

RoyoU Tombs i. 

Kings. 

S.D. 

43 , 55 

456-482 

Den-Qa 

81-82 

49 

271-3 

Zet-Azab 

80-81 

50 

346-376 

Merneit-Qa 

81-82 

52 

536 

Den 

81 

54 

van 10-103 

Semerkhet ? 

82? 

57 

1117-20 

Den-Semerkhet 

81-82 

58,59 

1091-4 

Den 

81 

65 

669-696 

Zet-Qa 

80-82 

68 

802 

Merneit 

early 81 


Figs. 64, 77, are more complete on the vase in 
Tarkhan /, Ivi, 76 d, showing that originally the sign 
represented a man with an implement. The dating 
of S.D. 80 down to fig. 42 accords with that at the 
Royal Tombs, it being questionable, whether the 
tomb of Merneit should be called 80 or 81. The 
dating of S.D. 8i from figs. 49 to 59 accords in all 
cases except that of fig. 54. This is compared here 
to the similar fortress names of Semerkhet; but the 
form differs, as the falcon is here in an inner square, 
which is never found in the case of Semerkhet; and, 
as the name is lost, it might be of an earlier king. 
Looking at the fragments of the name left here, it 
seems like the place name most frequently men¬ 
tioned under Den (best compared with Royal 
Tombs II, XX, 163). All these potters’ marks (except 
one) were therefore contemporary at Abydos and 
Tarkhan, as we also found to be the case last year 
(Tarkhan /, 28). 

28. Pis. xxii, xxiii, xxiv. The cemetery of this 
year being earlier than most of that worked last year, 
the slate palettes were far commoner. Here for the 
first time a regular corptis of types has been formed. 
They are arranged in systematic order, and numbered 
so as to allow of other types and varieties being 
inserted. All the entries of slates in the Register 
(pis. xxxii to xliii) follow the numbers of this corpus. 
It is hoped that in future all slates will be registered 
similarly, so as to be comparable for study. The 
forms hardly need any remark as they are familiar 
before, and the statistics of their types in the periods 
77 to 80 are given in section 56, chapter V, on 
Methods of Burial. They are rare after 78; 93 per 
cent, of them are dated to 77 and 78, only 7 per cent. 
after that. Thus they became extinct as soon as 
the dynastic race was well established, the old pre¬ 
historic customs quickly vanishing. This is one of 
the most marked and sudden changes, indicating an 
essential difference in the people. The finest slate 
10 d was kept at Cairo, and half of all the others were 


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OBJECTS ON PLATES XXV TO LI 


13 


taken at the museum, to be sold regardless of their 
history and dating, thus being lost to science. 

Pis. XXV, xxvi, xxvii. These plates continue the 
corpus of stone vases published in Tarkhan /, xxxii to 
xliv, supplementing that series with new forms and 
varieties, numbered so as to fit those already pub¬ 
lished. The whole corpus of both years is used in 
the Register. The finest of the alabaster vases were 
ransomed back from the Cairo Museum, for distri¬ 
bution in series, properly dated. The great majority, 
however, were halved at the Museum, and thus half 
were lost to future reference. 

Pis. xxviii, xxix, xxx, xxxi. These plates simi¬ 
larly continue the corpus of pottery, published in 
Tarkhan /, xlvi to Iviii. The chief part of the fresh 
matter is the series of painted patterns on cylinder 
jars under type 46. Half of all the pottery was 
taken at the Cairo Museum. 

Pis. xxxii to xliii. The Register of graves is on 
the same system as that in Tarkhan /. The only 
differences are that the attitude of the body in 
positions 1-5 (sect. 48) is ’stated under A.T.; in 
S.D. 77, 78, and 79 a column is used for references 
to types of the corpus of slates, following the stone 
vases; and in S.D. 81 a column is used for the 
foreign pottery, following the general pottery. In 
both the stone vases and slates, a small c prefixed to 
the number shows that the specimen has been taken 
at Cairo for the sale-room, and is lost to future 
reference. Ticks placed after a number, as 37'", 
show the number of examples. 

29. Pis. xliv, xlv. An entirely new scheme of 
Register is here formed for the beads. Hitherto no 
attempt has been made to record beads uniformly, 
with due regard to size and variety. Some larger 
strings of beads have occasionally been drawn; but 
the great bulk of them have escaped record of any 
useful kind. 

Here each class of bead is taken separately, eight 
classes in all; most of these have further varieties 
of form, such as ball, cylinder, and drop beads. Then 
every bead found is registered in both dimensions, 
duplicates omitted. The register is graphic so that 
the general results of size can be seen at a glance. 

To take the first: there is the section of the 
smallest bead of its class, small green glazed pottery 
beads, magnified 20 times, showing the outline 
over all, and the size of the hole through it This 
bead is that of grave 678, the number at the top 
right-hand corner of it. Next above that is 874, 
showing where the corner of the beads of grave 


874 would come if lodged in the same bottom left 
corner of the diagram, like 678. So at the extreme 
top right will be seen 1707, showing where the beads 
found in 1707 would reach to if lodged in the same 
opposite corner of the diagram. The absolute size 
in decimals of an inch is marked along the left and 
top of each diagram, each i/20th of an inch diameter 
being marked by a ruled line. 

The lines put over many of the numbers show 
the form of the bead, whether straight cylinder, 
barrel, drop form, etc. 

The second diagram is really an extension of 
the first, on half the scale, the corner where the 
first diagram would come being marked on the 
second. 

In the Carnelian, the fourth diagram, it will be 
seen how closely they keep to the same proportion 
of length to breadth; the numbers all lying in a 
narrow belt, not spreading out in either length or 
breadth alone. 

When broken lines extend from a number, it 
shows that there is a range of variation of the 
dimensions. 

From such diagrams it is easy to see what is the 
range of variation of every form, and whether barrel, 
cylinder, or drop forms are of any different sizes ; 
to trace what the date is by the grave number of 
any particular size; to see whether the type is closely 
defined or variable; and to find exactly what beads 
resemble any that may be found in future. For the 
occurrence of beads in burials, see section 57. 

PI. xlvi. The plan of the cemetery has already 
been described fully in chapter I. 

PL xlvii. These are the plans of hills which were 
not fully worked last year, in which the graves found 
this year are incorporated. 

30. PI. xlviii. The general map of the whole 
site is given here, built up of the sectional maps of 
both volumes on Tarkhan. The relation of the 
cemetery to the railway and station has already been 
given on pi. Ixix in Tarkhan /. The valley ceme¬ 
tery probably extended almost to the modem canal; 
but has been buried under the Nile mud, which has 
risen about 30 feet in level since the date of the 
burials. The excavations were limited by the water 
level, the rise of which has swamped the lower end 
of the cemetery. For connection with official maps, 
the two modern Arab domed tombs are here entered; 
but otherwise modern tombs have been ignored, to 
avoid confusion. 

31. Pis. xlix, 1 , li. The actual measurements of 


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THE DESCRIPTION OF PLATES 


the long bones are stated in these tables, as measured 
and prepared by Mr. Horace Thompson, on the plan of 
those which I designed in Dendereh. Each measure¬ 
ment is marked by the number of the grave. Such a 
method of stating the material has the advantage that 
the distribution can be seen at a glance, and the most 
important results are obvious without any extraction. 
It is true that for correlation of different bones it is 
necessary to write out tables from these diagrams; 
but such is also the case when measurements are 
published of each skeleton together. In no form of 
publication is any result visible without further work, 
except in a diagram arrangement such as this. The 
curves of the results follow in the succeeding plates, 
and are discussed in the next chapter, on Early 
Egyptian Skeletons. 

Pis. lii to lix. These are described and discussed 
in the chapter just named. 

PI. lx. The mode of extracting results from the 
jaw is stated in the latter part of chapter VI on The 
Skulls and Jaws. 

32. Pis. Ixi to Ixxi. These photographs of skulls 
are each marked with the sex (M or F) and the date, 
in sequence dates for the Menite period, in dynasties 
(as xi, etc.) for later periods. All of these skulls are 
in the hands of Prof. Karl Pearson at University 
College, London, and will be measured and discussed 
in his Department of Eugenics. The two elevations 
are placed together, as they are most required for 
comparison ; the top and base views are seldom to 
be compared with the elevations, and would only 
reduce the facility of comparison if inserted between 
the elevations. The plans are therefore all placed 
together, after the elevations. 

These skulls were, like the other bones, so much 
decayed by damp that none of them could be lifted 
without great care. Where the skull had not collapsed 
by the pressure, an attempt was made to lift it out in 
a lump of earth ; by turning the face upward, it could 
be carried in both hands from the grave to the store¬ 
room. There it was left to dry for a week or two. 
Then the sand was brushed away from the facial 
bones, and they were fixed by ladling out super¬ 
heated paraffin wax, which would penetrate the mass 
before chilling. When the face was set, the jaw 
could be dusted and similarly fixed. Then the rest 
of the outside could be cleaned and paraffined. The 
skull could now be turned, with care, in any direction. 
The hardened sand and marl could next be loosened 
from the inside and shaken out. When empty, the 
skull could then be dipped safely in a pan of melted 


paraffin ; and some was allowed to flow inside and 
swilled around. This dipping must not go on long 
enough to melt through the paraffin already set in 
the hollows, but it unifies the whole treatment, and 
leaves a waterproof coating over the surface. After 
chilling, the skulls can now be handled as safely as 
modern examples. 

For photographing them, a stand of shelves was 
made, with each shelf sloping so that its plane 
pointed to the lens of the camera. Thus the photo¬ 
graph shows only the edges, and not the flats of the 
shelves, and all skulls are placed in an exactly similar 
pose to the camera. On each shelf, the skulls were 
so rotated that the tangent to the brow pointed to 
the lens. Thus every skull of a group of nine was 
exactly in the same position to the lens. The slight 
distortion on the plate does not matter, as no absolute 
measurements were to be taken from the photo¬ 
graphs. The main thing is that all the views are 
square with the medial plane of the skull, and 
opposite to the brow. A half-lens was used (rapid 
symmetrical) of 12 inches’ focus. The common defect 
in photographing statuary is to place the camera 
opposite to the centre of the head, and so distort the 
profile by an oblique view from behind its plane, 
which is the worst position. Actually the brow 
pointed to one side of the lens, so that the optic axis 
should be slightly in front of the brow in about the 
mean plane of the features. The horizontal plane is 
that of the teeth or chin ; the disadvantage of being 
thus below the centre (only 3 or 4 inches on 5 feet 
distance) is more than compensated by getting rid of 
the shelf surface spoiling the definition of the outline. 
The skulls were all levelled to the Frankfort plane 
(orbito-auricular), and blocks of soap were found to 
be best for supporting them ; the soap can be cut to 
any height, and the basal points slightly bedded in 
the surface to give a steady support. The back¬ 
ground was a white sheet hung some feet behind the 
shelves ; and each shelf threw a shadow on the skull 
below it so that a good contrast was obtained against 
the background. The outlines here are entirely un¬ 
touched, except slightly at the base where the block 
supports hid the contacts. No blocked outline is 
worth anything for accuracy, but these can be taken 
as absolutely certain elevations of the skulls. In the 
plans the upper side should be accepted and not the 
lower, as sometimes the shelf slightly interfered with 
the outline. The shelf has been blocked out here 
with great care, using a magnifier, but the form must 
be taken only from the top half. 


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The pottery on pi. Ixxi is already described in 
the account of pi ix. 

PI. Ixxii. Besides the preservation of the skulls 
above noted, measurements of 334 skulls were taken 
as they lay in the grave ; only 13 of these could be 
preserved as above. These measurements are dis¬ 
cussed in chapter VI on Early Egyptian Skulls, and 
the results are shown in this plate. The separate 
measurements are not published, as it seems best to 
issue them with the more detailed measures that will 
be taken on the series brought to England. The 
general result, bearing on the conclusions from the 
long bones, is what is necessary to be given here. 


CHAPTER IV 

EARLY EGYPTIAN SKELETONS 

33. As studies advance, much more detail and 
discrimination must be observed, beyond the rough 
general terms which belong to the first stage of 
research. In 1879 the College of Surgeons' catalogue 
only recognised “ ancient ” and " modern ” Egyptians, 
only one date was given, and that with an absurd 
misprint Twenty years later we were at least dis¬ 
tinguishing the main periods of the civilisation, and 
writing of “ prehistoric ” Egyptians, probably ranging 
over 2,cxx) years. Now, fourteen years later, it 
behoves us to discriminate at least every 500 or 
1,000 years in time, and four or five different districts 
of Egypt 

The large mass of material from my work at 
Tarkhan, measured last winter, so greatly consoli¬ 
dates our knowledge, that some general review of the 
position is now suitable. The new material being 
moreover all of one site, and within a single century, 
it is not subdivided among different categories as 
much of the previous material must necessarily be, 
where we begin to discriminate details. It is by far 
the largest mass of observations of a single period 
and place yet collected ; and it belongs to the most 
important age—the critical junction of the prehistoric 
and historic peoples. We owe the collection of these 
measures to Mr. Horace Thompson, who took them 
all in the graves, from which the bones were too rotted 
to be removed whole. 

It will aid our view to state, approximately, the 
amount of skeletal material now available of the 
different early periods, naming the discoverer and the 
measurer. 


Prehistoric (Petrie, Warren) . . .738 

(of which dateable in detail. 222) 

o and ist dynasty (Petrie, Thompson) . 614 
(only counting adults with complete legs) 
(Positions recorded in 1912-13 . . . 969) 

Nubian survey, various early dates (Reisner, 

Elliot Smith).180 

ivth dynasty, Meydum (Petrie, Garson) 15 

vth dynasty, Deshasheh (Petrie, Petrie) . 41 

vith—xiith dynasty, Dendereh (Petrie, 
MacIver).121 

There is unfortunately a great difference in the 
amount of material of the various periods; but the 
ivth dynasty will be better studied when Dr. 
Reisner’s series from Gizeh may be published. For 
the present only the skeletal measures are dealt with 
here, as it was found by a preliminary search of 
measurements of 330 skulls from Tarkhan that the 
distinctive groupings were not so clearly shown by 
the skulls as by the long bones. On the skulls see 
sects. 32, 59—61. 

34. A short statement is due as to the method of 
extracting results from this mass of measurements. 
The measured lengths were all maxima^ for the con¬ 
ditions of measurement with the bone lying half 
buried in sand did not admit of any reference of spacial 
planes. For forming the diagrams, the ordinary 
crude method of counting the numbers in consecutive 
spaces of 5 millimetres, by no means shows the full 
results. There is no reason, for instance, why spaces 
of 270—274, 275—279, should be taken, rather than 
271—27s, or 272—276, as a scale of division of the 
material. Hence the only logical method is to count 
the number in the spaces 270—274, 271—275, 272— 
276, 273—277, 274—278, and enter the total of each 
space upon its central number. This will give a 
much finer gradation of detail than arbitrary selection 
of one chain of spaces, and ignoring of the other 
chains which overlap it. The question is thus 
raised; What size should each group be ? The 
larger the group the more it eclipses casual varia¬ 
tions ; but if too large it would also eclipse the larger 
and significant variations due to different classes of 
material. The size of the group must, then, be fixed 
by considering the amount of casual variations likely 
to arise, and the distance apart of what may seem to 
be real changes of material In the present work, 
the casual variations may be perhaps, on an average, 
2 mm. for differences of right and left, 2 mm. for 
possible changes in the bone, 3 mm. for errors of 


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estimating the length on a scale laid over the bone, 
and reading in awkward positions in a narrow pit. 
These would result in a total variation of 4 mm. 
The differences of type appear to be from 5 to 
15 mm. Hence groups of 5 mm. would be a very 
suitable size of scale. On adding up the total 
examples of each of the last digits of the recorded 
numbers, it appeared that there was considerable 
prejudice for or against some numbers, which would 
only be eliminated by taking groups of 10; such 
groups did not appear to extinguish the differences of 
type suggested by smaller groupings of 3 or 5; and 
it was, therefore, thought better to slightly smudge 
the significant grouping, in order to get rid of the 
casual variation. For the Tarkhan material, there¬ 
fore, groups of 10 were counted; while for the 
Naqadeh and Dendereh material, which was measured 
in much better circumstances, groups of were 
counted. Inasmuch as really every observation 
should have a probability curve of its own, and the 
total curve be the sum at any point of all the con¬ 
stituent curves, it would be theoretically the best 
process, to form curves by different sized groups, of 
3, of 5 and of 10, and then add these curves together, 
thus giving a three-step curve to each observation. 
This was done for the four curves of humerus -h radius, 
and femur -f- tibia, male and female of each ; but the 
result did not seem to show any clear superiority in 
distinctiveness beyond that of the groups of 10. 
As possibly the principle might be questioned, it has 
not been used in the present results. 

The diagrams are all lettered here, and reference 
will be made by the letter. On the diagrams J to R, 
the middle example, or median, is marked with M, 
in order to compare them readily. 

35. HumeruSf Femaky PI. Hi, Diagram A. This is 
a fairly normal curve, the observed points falling pretty 
equally on either side of a true probability curve, 
marked by the dotted line. The actual examples are 
shown by the columns of spots below; the sums of 
groups of ten millimetres are taken at every milli¬ 
metre, and marked by the short vertical lines. There 
is a slight excess at the extremes, and a hump at 
about 272 with a hollow at 282. The symmetry at 
the extremes and about the top shows that the curve 
cannot be fitted closer, and the hump at 272 seems to 
be due to some cause lowering the numbers about 
280, but does not seem to indicate any distinct group. 

RadiuSy FemaUy B. This is the most regular of 
all the curves, the only general deviation of the 
actual quantities from the dotted theoretical curve 


being in the higher numbers. Probably a slight 
sacrifice should be made at the lower numbers by 
narrowing the dotted curve, as in the diagram F 
where a closer fit is attained. It might be supposed 
that the deficiency of large female radii was due to 
some being wrongly attributed to males. But on 
looking at the male curve, it is seen that the secon¬ 
dary curve on the main one is deficient rather than in 
excess from 247 to 250. 

36. Female Curvesy PI. liii, C. Comparing the 
observations on the humerus, radius, and clavicle, 
shown by the continuous lines, with the theoretical 
curves of dotted lines, it is seen that they are in fairly 
close agreement, and that there is no evidence of any 
secondary curve superposed. We must conclude, 
then, that at the beginning of the first dynasty, the 
female population was of a uniform type, without any 
recent intrusion of a different type. 

37. Male CurveSy PI. liii, D. The case, however, 
is quite different with the males. Here each curve is 
irregular, with a secondary curve superposed on the 
left, showing a lesser size of bone than the main 
curve. Hence it seems that the male population 
was of two types. The main body agrees with the 
measures of the female population; the differences 
being, in humerus 28, against 25 and 28 at Dendereh; 
in radius 24, against 25 and 24; in clavicle 18, against 
16. The minor body is of rather smaller type than 
the main body, in each dimension. 

38. HumeruSy PI. liv, E. In order to see more 
clearly the relation of the uniform female type to the 
double male types, the two curves are superposed, 
with the maxima one over the other. The female 
points (see also A) are worked with a vertical line, 
the male points with a horizontal line. The excess 
over the normal curve (dotted) of the males, is 
measured off and reproduced below, where the 
successive points are marked, and the mean curve 
dotted between them. This excess forms a sym¬ 
metrical curve, showing that it is probably due to an 
intrusive type mixed with the main type. The area 
of the female curve is 54 per cent, of the whole, the 
main male 42, and the male minority 4 per cent. 

RadiuSy PI. liv, F. Here we see much the same 
distribution. The female curve is homc^eneous (see 
also B), while the male curve has a large peak to the 
lower side. The excess of this peak above the normal 
curve is extracted and shown below as a small 
separate curve. The area of the female curve is 
54 per cent,y that of the corresponding male curve 41, 
and the male minority 5 per cent. 


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CURVES OF BONE DIAGRAMS 


17 


Clavicle^ PI. Iv, G. The female curve here is very 
homogeneous as we saw in diagram C, while the 
male curve has a low group as usual The slight 
excess in the lowest part of the female examples is 
probably due to including a few not fully grown. 
The area of the female curve is 54 per ceni., and of 
the male curve 42. The male minority put out below 
is 4 per cent, 

39. On examining the measures of the leg-bones, 
in neither of them could the same double curve be 
detected as in the arm-bones; and it appeared as if 
no distinct difference of type could be distinguished 
in them. But when the sum of femur and tibia was 
added, then a strong grouping appeared in the male, 
and probably some sub-varieties in the female also. 

Femur + Tibia^ PL Iv, H. Here the separate 
points are set out in detail, but for distinctness the 
resultant curves should be inspected on the following 
diagrams J, M. The most prominent result is a very 
steep peak rising from the normal male curve, show¬ 
ing a very closely related minority, more sharply 
distinguished than in the previous curves. The ex¬ 
cess of this peak over the normal curve is set out as 
the minority curve below. It amounts to 4 per cent^ 
while the female is 56 and the normal male 40 per 
cent. 

Though this minority is not at all represented in 
the female curve, shown above in H, yet there are 
some curious resemblances between the female curve 
and that of the male majority. In the female curve 
is a sharp peak at 794, and a lesser peak in the male 
curve at about 8 mm. above the corresponding point 
Also at 690 is a peak, and a corresponding peak in 
the male curve at about 10 mm. above the equivalent 
point We may perhaps expect that these show two 
small tribes, both male and female, in the population, 
one 7 per cent, larger, the other 6 per cent, smaller 
than the majority, and with women rather smaller in 
proportion to the size of the men. The actual num¬ 
ber of each of these two tribes would be only about 
a twentieth of the population. 

40. The next consideration is the comparison of 
the results from Tarkhan (dating just 'before and 
after the b^inning of the first dynasty), with the 
results from other sites and other early periods. 
The material for this comparison is published in the 
following work, An Investigation on the Varia¬ 
bility of the Human Skeleton, by Ernest Warren, 
1898 iJPhiL Trans, Roy, Soc. vol 189, pp. 135-227), 
dealing with the measurements of 738 skeletons 
collected by me in the prehistoric cemetery of 


Naqadeh. Subsequently by the study of the pottery, 
and introduction of Sequence Dates, I was able, from 
our records of types, to give relative dates to 222 of 
these measured skeletons. These were subdivided 
into three classes: 65 were of the first period down 
to 42 S.D. ; 127 of the second period, 43-69 S.D.; 
while 30 were of S.D. 70 and later, separated in order 
to see if there were a tendency to approximate to the 
dynastic type. The sex of these was checked over 
by the later determination, published with the cranial 
measurements in Biometrika i, 466, 1902. The three 
periods named are entered in separate lines at the 
top of each diagram. Where there are ten or more 
examples, their resulting curve (or polygon) is given, 
and dots placed to show the instances; where there 
are fewer, the separate instances are marked with 
heavy dots which will at least indicate whether they 
agree or disagree with other results. 

The material from Tarkhan is published in the 
tables in the present volume. 

The points marked IV show the median of 12 
male bodies from the cemetery of Meydum, of the 
beginning of the ivth dynasty, published in De- 
shasheh, p. 27. 

The points marked V show the median of 12 
male bodies which were found in perfect order at 
Deshasheh, of the vth dynasty. The points D show 
the median of 8 male bodies of the same age which 
had been partly dissevered at Deshasheh, published 
in Deshasheh, p. 27. 

The curves of Dendereh are from the skeletons of 
the vith to xiith dynasties, published in Dendereh, 
pis. K, M, N. Altogether over 1500 bodies have 
been measured from my excavations. 

The measurements made on the 170 skeletons of 
early age in the Nubian survey have not been in¬ 
cluded here; in the first place, they are so distant 
in source that it is doubtful if they can be brought 
into certain relation to most of the other material; 
in the second place the date, though early, is so 
vague, owing to lack of discrimination of the pottery 
forms, that it is doubtful whether they should be 
compared with prehistoric or with early dynastic 
Egyptians. 

41. Femur and Tibia, PI. Ivi, J. On looking at 
the position of M, which marks the median in each 
curve, it will be seen that the size diminishes from 
the early prehistoric down to the Tarkhan minority,— 
the invading people of the ist dynasty. The median 
size then increases in the ivth; in D, the dissevered 
bodies of the vth; in V, the perfect bodies of the 


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vth; and remains much the same in the vith to xiith 
at Dendereh. 

42. The cuiVe of Individuals of the Tarkhan 
minority is reached in the following manner. On 
each diagram of males is shown a full-line curve of 
the Tarkhan minority, transferred down from the 
excess of the Tarkhan whole curve, above the normal 
probability curve, as fitted to the observations. These 
minority curves, then, indicate the ranges over which 
the minority may be found. Now there is no neces¬ 
sity that because any individual occurs within this 
range on one diagram, that the same individual should 
occur within the minority range on another diagram; 
as a fact, most of the individuals in one range occur 
outside of another range. But if we are dealing with 
a really different group of people, the individuals of 
that group ought to occur only within the minority 
range in each of the diagrams. Hence, to find these 
individuals, we have to search for those whose 
measurements shall all of them fall within the 
minority range of each bone, or so close to them 
that they may belong to the same group. A table 
of the measures of such individuals is given on 
pi. xliii, with some included (marked with ?) which 
only exceed the range in one measurement There 
is no mere repetition by including the whole arm as 
well as the humerus and radius separately; for the 
sum of the minima of hum. and rad. is 515 and 
maxima 558, both beyond the limits allowed for the 
sum of the bones. Here, then, we have five tests of 
limits; and, before we allow an individual really to 
belong to the minority group, he must pass within 
each of the five limits. Altogether 22 pass in all the 
limits, and 7 more pass in four out of five limits. 
Now the size of the minority is about i/9th or i/iith 
of the whole of the males, that is, it should consist 
of 25 or 30 individuals. Hence we may accept the 
22, which pass all the tests, as being clearly of the 
minority group, and probably also most of the 7, 
which pass all tests but one. 

Having thus extracted the individuals of the 
minority, we may deal with them as a clear group, 
which will not coincide exactly with the first full-line 
curve of the minority, as they have had to pass all 
five tests, and so are weeded of casual interlopers 
coming from the majority curve. The full-line 
minority curve is thus mixed up with casuals from 
the whole body. The large dots placed along the 
base of it show the individuals which pass all the 
tests, and form the unquestionable minority. Over 
these dots is a curve of small dots which is the curve 


of this individual minority, the truest representation 
of the intrusive minority. Finally this minority is 
subtracted from the whole curve above, which then 
comes on the dotted line marked ** without minority,” 
and shows what is the true form of the majority 
curve. 

43. On looking over all the diagrams of different 
periods. Pis. Ivi to lix, J to R, it is seen that there is 
seldom any exception to the general decrease of the 
body from the early prehistoric down to the minority 
of the ist dynasty; and that from then, or from the 
ivth dynasty, the size of the body increased, but 
did not in general reach the prehistoric size. The 
clavicle decreases but little, until the minority of 
the ist dynasty, and then increases again from that 
to its original size. 

To survey the nature of these changes, and to 
gather from them the general alteration of dimensions 
from one age to another, we may take the differences 
from the best-ascertained values—these of the Tar¬ 
khan majority—^and state the amounts, larger or 
smaller. In order to render the changes comparable, 
they are here stated in thousandths of the size of the 
bone,—not percentage, but per millage. 


Prehistoric. 

Tarkhan ist. 

IvUi. 

rth. 

Titfato 

Earij. Middle. Late. 

Majority. Minority. 


Disaer. Perf. 

xiith. 

Humerus . +36 + 10+7 

0 —48 

-38 

— 10 +16 

+ 7 

Radius . +43 +138 +43 

0 —17 

— 16 

+ 12 +16 

+ 21 

Whole arm +41 +62 +5 

0 -S 3 

-35 

-7 + 9 

+ s 

Clavicle . +14 + 7+14 

0 —69 

-46 

0 — 6 

0 

Whole leg +61 + 41 +45 

0 —19 

+ 3 

+ 34 +44 

'•'33 

Average +39 + 52 +23 

0 —40 

—26 

+ 6+16 

+ 13 


Here three out of five in the middle prehistoric show 
a decrease from the early, and die only exception is 
the preposterous length of the radius, mainly among 
women : otherwise there would be a regular decrease 
from the early prehistoric down to the minority of 
the ist dynasty, and then a regular increase up to the 
perfect bodies of the vth dynasty. 

44. Are these changes to be attributed to gradual 
alterations in a single stock, or to the inflow of 
different stocks? If this one single stock were in 
course of gradual change, it would seem impossible 
to have a sharp pile of a minority curve superposed 
on a much wider majority curve, as in J. This 
stamps the inflow of a different stock. Hence it 
seems probable that the dynastic Egyptians began 
to filter into the country in the late prehistoric age, 
and had largely modified the general stock, while the 
political conquest was carried out by a closely related, 
compact, clan of the same race, which continued 



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POPULATION AND DIMENSIONS 


19 


dominant till the ivth dynasty, and then became 
gradually mixed in the general population. Such 
a course of mixture would be like that of the Hyksos 
and Arab invasions, where a good deal of mixture of 
an intrusive people took place before the final con¬ 
quest by a pure body of the same race. The cause 
in all cases was probably a slow climatic change, 
at last precipitating a political convulsion. 

4$. We may now turn to the relative numbers of 
the population. The minority group is measured 
by its area above the normal curve which fits the 
majority; and this varies according to different 


bones, stated here in 

percentages 

of the whole 

population: 

Minority. 

Majority. 


Male. 

Male. Female. 

Humerus 

4 

42 54 

Radius . 

5 

41 54 

Clavicle . 

4 

42 54 

Femur -f- Tibia 

4 

40 $6 

Mean 

4 

41 55 


The figures show that i/iithof the male population 
was intrusive; and there were three women to one 
of the invading men. On dividing these results into 
periods of sequence date, the following proportions 
appear: 


S.D. 

M. 

F. = 

M. 

F. 

77 

149 

175 

ICX) 

II7 

78 

105 

II3 

100 

108 

79 

II 

17 



80 

16 

26 



81 

29 

14 




The later periods have too few examples to give 
any safe result of proportion ; but it appears that in 
77, immediately after the conquest, there were 117 
women to icx) men, or 28 women to 11 invading men. 
About a generation later, in 78, there were 108 
women, or 19 women to ii invaders. As the second 
generation would not show any disproportion due 
to killing the earlier race, it may be taken as showing 
that in the capital, on an average, 11 invaders had 
19 women of the country; while the 28 women in 
the earlier generation of the conquest may include 
9 widows, or women captured from a distance. The 
difference of proportion of these numbers from the 
bone-measure numbers of 100 men to 122 women 
occurs from those being from whole bones, while 
the later table of M and F is of all graves that could 
be sexed. 


46. Another subject of measurement was the 
stature. This was observed by measuring with a 
tape from the vertex, along the middle of the spine, 
from the top of the lumbar curve to the centre of 
the ball of the thigh, thence to the knee, thence to the 
heel. Thus, though the bodies were contracted, the 
living stature, less the skin on vertex and heel, could 
be measured. This was done for 25 male and ii 
female skeletons of the ist dynasty. 

The males will be considered apart. The median 
stature is 1700 mm. (66*9 inches). The following 
measures give the mean length of the bone for the 
particular skeletons measured, the mean variation 
from this in mm., and as a percentage of the bone 
length; this shows which bones vary most one from 
another. Next is the bone as percentage of the 
height, and the mean variation of this ratio as a 
percentage of the bone; this shows from which 
bones the height may be most certainly deduced: 



mm. 

Mean 

var. 

Var. as % 
of bone. 

%of 

height. 

Var.a8% 
of bone. 

Femur . . 

454 

18 

3*9 

265 

2*8 

F-H T . . 

820 

33 

40 

478 

27 

Tibia . . 

367 

17 

4*5 

213 

3*4 

Humerus . 

322 

13 

4*0 

188 

2-8 

H +R . 

567 

23 

4*1 

335 

3*0 

Radius 

244 

12 

4*9 

144 

3*8 


Here the radius is much the most variable in itself, 
and in relation to the stature. The tibia is less 
variable. The humerus and femur are equally good 
for giving the stature, with a mean variation of 2*8 
per cent.\ so that 8 examples will give the mean 
stature with i per cent, variation. 

The female skeletons are similarly stated, only, 
instead of the mean variation, the difference between 
male and female is stated in mm. and as a percentage 
of the bone. The median stature is 1570 mm. (61*8 
inches): 



mm. 

M.-F. 

M.?F. 

Var. as % 
of bone. 

%of 

height. 

Var. as % 
of bone. 

Femur . 

405 

49 

12 

3*9 

256 

1-8 

F-i-T . 

739 

81 

II 

3*4 

472 

20 

Tibia 

334 

33 

10 

3*9 

212 

3*0 

Humerus 

289 

33 

II 

3*7 

187 

2*9 

H + R . 

510 

57 

II 

3*7 

325 

2*9 

Radius . 

224 

20 

9 

4*3 

142 

3*2 


Here the femur is in proportion the shortest bone, 
and the radius the longest, as compared with the male 
measures. In other words, the lengths of bones are 
less differentiated in the females. The amount of 


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EARLY EGYPTIAN SKELETONS 


variability in proportion to the bone is rather less 
than in males; and the variability in relation to the 
height is much less than in males, in both the leg and 
radius. In short, man is much more variable than 
woman in each respect. The living statures may be 
considered as 67J inches for men and 62J inches for 
women. 

Taking the sum of the leg bones as 1000, the sum 
of the arm bones in the prehistoric and Tarkhan male 
majority is 700-704, while in the minority and on to 
the vith dynasty it is 672-677, the minority of males 
thus fixing the later type. In the females, in the 
early prehistoric, it is 655, general prehistoric 712, 
Tarkhan 681, and later 674 to 688. Here the ist 
dynasty females have already reached the shorter 
type of arm. 

47. Summary 

(Section 33). Measures are published of 892 
skeletons accurately dated, and 807 more with vague 
dates, before the xiith dynasty. The long bones 
show details of distribution of variation much more 
clearly than the skulls. 

(34) . The casual errors are eliminated by counting 
groups of 10 mm. together, and, by doing this at 
every single mm., the real variations are more clearly 
shown. 

(35) . The female humerus and radius (A, B, 
pi. Hi) at Tarkhan give curves of normal distribution 
of a single variable, shown in detail. 

(36) . The female curves (C, liii) (humerus, radius, 
and clavicle) are all single centred. 

(37) . The similar male curves (D, liii) are all 
double centred. The bigger type is that pro¬ 
portional to the female curves; the smaller type of 
man has no distinct female parallel here. 

(38) . The female and male results for humerus, 
radius, and clavicle (E, F, liv, G, Iv) show a male 
minority in excess of the norm; this is extracted 
apart and given as a separate result below. 

(39) . (H, Iv). Leg bones do not show a distinct 
grouping when separate, but have very marked 
grouping when added together. The regular male 
minority group is very clear, and also a suggestion of 
a low and a high group in both male and female, of 
about 6 and 7 per cent, 

(40) . Measurements of skeletons of other periods 
for comparison. 

(41) . Femur and tibia (J, Ivi) diminish in each 
period from early prehistoric down to the Tarkhan 


minority of ist dynasty, and then enlarge to the 
earlier size in the vth and vith dynasties. 

(42) . The male minority curve is evident in four 
bones—humerus, radius, clavicle, and leg—but super¬ 
posed in each upon a large amount of the majority 
curve. As, however, the same individuals of the 
majority curve are not likely to fall within these 
narrower limits of the minority in all the different 
bones, we can separate the real minority individuals 
by their having dimensions within the four groups of 
•the minority. The number that will pass all these 
four gates accords with the proportionate number 
forming the minority curve. The minority indi¬ 
viduals can then be taken out, and separate curves 
drawn of their results. 

(43) . The diagrams (J to R, Ivi to lix) of the 
humerus, radius, and clavicle all show the same 
changes as the 1 ^ bones. There is a continuous 
reduction in size, altogether 8 per cenU^ down to the 
male minority of the ist dynasty and after that an 
enlargement, of about 6 per cent.^ to the vith dynasty. 

(44) . These changes are probably due to a gradual 
infiltration of the dynastic people, long before the 
rule of the ist dynasty. That they are due to a 
mixture, and not to a spontaneous evolution, is 
shown by the sharply defined minority curves 
standing out upon the general mass. This gradual 
preliminary change is historically probable by the 
analogy of the infiltration of the Hyksos, and of the 
Arabs, centuries before the forcible conquest by a 
small tribe. 

(45) . The minority group of invading males was 
4 per cent, of the whole people, or i/i ith of the whole 
males, in the capital. There was a large excess of 
females, equivalent to about three women to each 
invader at first, and two women about a life-time 
later. 

(46) . The stature was about 67J inches in men 
and 62\ in women. The humerus and femur have 
nearer relation to stature than the distal bones. Men 
are more variable in each respect than women. 

The inter-membral index, or ratio of arm to leg 
length diminishes sharply from 700 to 675 at the male 
minority of the ist dynasty, and continues thus to the 
vith. On the other hand, the female type dropped 
from 710 to 680 at the ist dynasty, and continued 
thus onwards. It is curious that the shortening of 
the arm, belonging to higher races, should have been 
effected on the female type in the general first 
dynasty people, while in the male type it only b^an 
then among the minority. 


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ATTITUDES OF BODY 


21 


CHAPTER V 

METHODS OF BURIAL 

48. Having now dealt with the skeletal measure¬ 
ments, the attitude of the body is next to be con¬ 
sidered. There are five grades of attitude to be 
separated ; (i) the parallel, with the spine, femora, 
and tibiae, all parallel, and head bent forward on to 
knees, evidently the result of bundling the body, 
tightly tied together, as found in some coffins (pi. x, 
1450, 1477). (2) Sharply bent thighs, 10® to 70® 

to spine (x, 1870). (3) Open angle of thigh 70° to 90° 
(x, 1411). (4) Square hip (x, 1669). (5) Obtuse 

hip (x, 1728; xi, 1439). These five grades of 
attitude are specified in the Register of graves, next 
after the sex in the body details. On taking the 
minority individuals only, no clear preference 
appears for any attitude; but the total is so small 
(only 26 of known attitude, including those of 
doubtful grouping) that not much can be concluded 
from them. Not a single body extended at full 
length could be assigned to the ist dynasty. Another 
way of examining the question was to take the 
average dimension of each bone, in each class of 
attitude. Only as the (2) sharply-bent were by far 
the majority, I have not extracted them all, but only 
taken the whole together, knowing that the class (2) 
alone must be still more different from the other 
classes. 

Male 



Parallel. 

All. 

Over 

70®. 

Square. 

Obtuse. 

Minority. 

Humerus 

315 

318 

307 

307 

302 

303 

Radius 

246 

245 

238 

243 

240 

234 

Clavicle 

149 

152 

15s 

146 

142 

142 

Fern.-1-Tib. 

810 

810 

803 

804 

787 

790 

Sums 

1520 

1525 

1503 

1500 

1471 

1469 



Female 




Humerus 

294 

290 

285 

292 

293 


Radius 

226 

222 

219 

226 

224 


Clavicle 

138 

134 

134 

133 

135 


Fern.-f Tib. 

756 

746 

728 

749 

748 


Sums 

1414 

1392 

1366 

1400 

1400 



Here we see that while the men show a steady 
decline in size from those sharply-bent down to those 
with the obtuse hip, the women do not show a regular 
progression. This would agree with the fact that the 


small invading men were buried in the less con¬ 
tracted attitude. The larger women being buried 
less flexed may indicate that the minority men 
selected tall women. There is no clear difference in 
the proportion of male and female in the different 
attitudes ; and as the graves of the women were more 
disturbed by plunderers for the sake of their orna¬ 
ments, and the attitude thus lost, we cannot take 
notice of small differences. 

The total numbers recorded in different attitudes 
are, parallel 93 (15 per cent.)y sharply bent over 350 
iS7 P^r cent.), open angle 82 (13 per cent), square at 
hip 58 (10 per cent.), obtuse at hip 30 (5 per cent.), 
total 482. This includes the burials of the hill 
cemeteries. When we examine the proportions in 
different periods, we do not see that there was any 
distinct tendency to increase or diminish. Nor does 
there appear any connection between attitude and 
skull measures, nor much between attitude and sex, 
except that the square and obtuse hips occur in 29 
females and in 35 males, where the normal propor¬ 
tion would have been 25 males. 

49. The position of the body was usually with 
the head to the north or to the south. In the 
prehistoric burials the head is regularly to the south; 
whereas the servants of Qa (end of ist dynasty) were 
buried with head to north in five graves, and only in 
one to south. In the dynastic times, the head to the 
north was usual. Here in the beginning of the ist 
dynasty we are in the midst of the change from head 
south to head north. Yet we do not find any pro¬ 
gressive change going on. The total numbers ol 
both years’ work—on hill and in valley—^are as 
follows: 

Head Direction 





Numbers. 



Per cent. 


Total. 

S.D. 

N. 

E. 

s. 

w. 

N. 

E. 

s. 

w. 

347 

77 

Ill 

19 

192 

25 

32 

6 

55 

7 

299 

78 

98 

27 

150 

24 

33 

9 

50 

8 

71 

79 

20 

0 

42 

9 

28 

0 

59 

13 

132 

80 

36 

3 

75 

18 

27 

2 

57 

14 

II5 

81 

47 

2 

58 

8 

41 

2 

50 

7 

S 

82 

3 

0 

2 

0 

60 

0 

40 

0 

969 


315 

51 

S19 

84 

33 

5 

53 

9 


It seems impossible to be certain of any progressive 
change, unless there were a slight diminution of north 
and increase of south from S.D. 77-8 to 79-80, yet 
this is countered by the proportion in 81. The head 
to east seems to have given place to head west It 
it curious that the change, if any, should be the 
reverse of that over a longer period. 


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22 


METHODS OF BURIAL 


On separating into male and female, the tendency 
is seen for males to be buried head south, and females 
head north. The total numbers in the excavations 
of both years together are: 


Nnmbera. 


Ptr tint. 




N. 

E. 

s. 

w. 

N. 

E. 

S. 

w. 

Male 


100 

18 

212 

28 

28 

5 

59 

8 

Female . 

136 

26 

183 

38 

35 

7 

48 

10 

741 


236 

44 

39 S 

66 

32 

6 

53 

9 

50. 

The 

directions 

of 

the face, in 

1 both 

years' 

results. 

are: 












Numbers. 



Percent. 


Total. 

S.D. 

N. 

E. 

s. 

w. 

N. 

E. 

S. 

W. 

333 

77 

22 

II 2 

14 

i8s 

6 

34 

4 

56 

289 

78 

25 

87 

25 

152 

9 

30 

8 

53 

70 

79 

8 

18 

I 

43 

11 

26 

I 

62 

129 

80 

17 

29 

4 

79 

13 

23 

3 

61 

III 

81 

8 

47 

2 

54 

7 

42 

2 

49 

5 

82 

0 

2 

0 

3 

0 

40 

0 

60 

937 


80 

295 

46 

516 

8 

32 

5 

55 


Here the face to the east was less usual from 
S.D. 77 down to 8o, while the face to the north became 
commoner; the western facing varies, but not 
regularly. This direction may also be regarded— 
and perhaps more naturally—as lying on the left or 
right side. The numbers in both years* work are: 


Numbers. 

Male. Female. 


S.D. 

R. 

L. 

R. 

L. 

77 

15 

135 

15 

163 

78 

17 

96 

17 

98 

79 

I 

17 

2 

20 

80 

4 

22 

2 

40 

81 

8 

40 

0 

21 

82 

0 

2 

0 

0 


29 

312 

36 

342 


Per cmt. 


Male. 

Female. 

R. 

L. 

R. 

L. 

10 

90 

8 

92 

15 

85 

15 

85 

6 

94 

9 

91 

15 

85 

5 

95 

17 

83 

0 

100 

0 

100 

0 

0 

9 

91 

9 

91 


Here there is seen a decrease of the usual left¬ 
side posture in both male and female, from S.D. 77 to 
78; after that the numbers are not large enough to 
warrant a conclusion. 

51. On separating the bodies with hip joint square 
or obtuse, there are some differences to be seen. As 
there are 58 of this class the results are not likely to 
be merely casual. The percentages are: 



Head. 

Face. 

Side. 


N. E. S. W. 

N. E. S. W. 

R. L. 

Total . 

32 6 S 4 9 

8 31 6 55 

II 89 

Square 

45 S 40 10 

10 43 5 42 

5 95 


The square and obtuse attitudes therefore are only 
half as often on the right side as the generality are ; 
and they are more often with head north and face 
east, while the generality lie with head south and face 
west. In short, although the prehistoric direction 
with head south had given way largely at this time, 
yet the square burials went a good deal further 
toward the regular historic direction, with head 
north. This accords with the result from bone 
measurements, that the prehistoric had been approxi¬ 
mating largely toward the invading type; yet that 
type when it came in pure was quite distinct. 

52. The size of the graves differs much, according 
to position : those on the hills (cleared in 1912) were 
larger and richer than those in the valley (1913). 
The median sizes in different periods are: 


S.D. 

Hills. 

Valley. 

77 

69 

X 

35 

45 

X 

25 

78 

70 

X 

41 

45 

X 

25 

79 

70 

X 

40 

46 

X 

27 

80 

63 

X 

40 

48 

X 

28 

81 

61 

X 

36 

51 

X 

31 


As the dynasty went on, the richer diminished 
the size of grave on the hills, and the poorer increased 
the size of grave in the valley. 

53. On referring to the plan of the valley 
cemetery, it does not appear that any part of it was 
occupied exclusively at one period. As a whole the 
graves nearer the valley mouth—to the east—are of 
the earlier period, for the good reason that the space 
was too closely occupied to encourage later use. 
Yet at the western head of the valley, and at all 
intermediate parts, there is almost an equal number 
of graves of 77 and of 78 S.D. The small number of 
graves of 79 and 80 are also widely scattered, but 
those of 81 are in the lower half of the valley. None 
of these later graves, however, are in the thick band 
at the valley mouth. 

There can be no doubt that the graves extended 
over a large area in front of the valley. Our excava¬ 
tion of the graves eastward was only checked by their 
lying in the water, with the remains rotted, and under 
8 or 10 feet of sand; but they continued as far as we 
turned the ground. Some hundreds of feet farther 
east we dug a well, and at once came on a similar 
grave with pottery. Several hundred feet still 
farther east is a sand-bar across the line of the valley, 
rising above the Nile mud, and indicating that there 
is a very shallow depth of cultivated mud soil over 
the desert sand in this region. The water level has 


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DISTRIBUTION OF BURIALS 


23 


risen 30 feet since this cemetery was formed, and it 
is to be expected that the cemetery should be near 
the ancient limit of cultivation. It is probable that 
the burials would begin where the ground was 10 feet 
or so over the ancient cultivation, or 20 feet beneath 
the present cultivation. The area of this cemetery 
would then be two or three times the extent of the 
part which remains now high enough to be accessible. 
From the distribution of graves of the later age being 
up the valley, it is probable that the part now buried 
out of reach was mainly used in S.D. 77. 

Two other questions of distribution remain. The 
graves with the square or obtuse attitude of burial are 
mostly in the upper part of the valley; the middle 
of them is about two-thirds along the whole of the 
graves. There is but little grouping, four lie close 
together at the west end, and seven lie within 100 feet 
at two-thirds up. The graves of twenty-five indi¬ 
viduals presumably of the male minority, are very 
similarly distributed, with the middle about two-thirds 
up the valley, but only slightly grouped. It thus 
seems that neither the minority nor the square burials 
were isolated from the population with any separate 
place of burial. 

54. The size of the coffins varies like that of the 
graves. The hill coffins of 77-78 S.D. are 52 x 24 x 22; 
those of the valley 44 x 23 x 15, smaller in every 
direction. 

55. In the materials of the coffin, there is a marked 
change; while in the hill burials there is only one 
basket before S.D. 79, yet in the valley there are 
eighteen in 77 and eight in 78, or averaging half as 
many as the wood coffins. This agrees to the valley 
burials being those of the poorer people. The totals 
for both years are— 


S.D. 

Wood coffin. 

Tray. 

Basket. 

Pottery. 

77 

37 


19 

I 

78 

48 

3 

8 

. . 

79 

10 

6 

3 

, , 

80 

14 

9 

6 


81 

21 

7 

6 

3 

There is 

a slightly 

greater 

proportion 

of wooden 


coffins for men, and of baskets for women. 

56. The use of slate palettes was continuous to 
S.D. 79, and then suddenly ceased. In s.D. 77 they 
are in 31 per cent, of the graves ; in 78, 34 per cent ,; 
in 79, 29 per cent, of the valley graves, practically 
equal throughout, but they only occurred in 7 percent 
of all the graves in S.D. 80. They are found with 
12 per cent, of male burials, and with 40 per cent, of 


female. Allowing for robbed graves, probably half 
of the women and a quarter of the men were buried 
with palettes. The proportion of types is the same 
in male and female burials. The numbers of the 
main types in each period are— 


S.D. 

Square. 

Round. 

Birds. 

Fish. 

77 

49 

17 

20 

19 

78 

45 

17 

8 

6 

79 

6 

2 

. . 

, . 

80 

6 

1 

, . 



This includes the hill and valley graves, and shows 
how the geometrical forms outlasted the animal 
forms. 

Comparing hill and valley in the period S.D. 77-79, 
the slates occur in less than a fifth of the hill graves, 
and in a third of the valley graves; probably they 
were twice as common among the poorer valley 
people as they were among the richer hill people. 

57. Beads were used by both men and women. 
Taking both hill and valley, there are— 


S.D. 

Male. 

Female. 

M. 

Per cent. 

F. 

77 

13 

34 

9 

19 

78 

6 

26 

5 

22 

79 


2 

. , 

20 

80 

3 

7 


30 

81 

4 

I 

. . 

10 


26 

70 




The percentage is only taken on the valley graves, 
as there are so few graves in which the sex was 
determined, on the hills. It appears that beads are 
thrice as usual with women as with men. Considering 
how most of the graves were robbed, and that the 
robbers always disturbed the neck and wrists to get 
the beads, it seems probable that nearly all the 
women had beads on the body, and perhaps a quarter 
of the men. 

58. Summary {compare on p, 20)j 

(Section 48.) The flexure of the body is classed 
in five stages, see pi. x. From the sharply flexed to 
the least flexed there is a uniform decrease in the size 
of the male bones; indicating that the more minority 
there was present, the less flexed was the burial. 
This only applies to male burials. In female burials 
this was reversed; it is possible that the men of the 
short invading minority selected the taller women, 
and thus the burials of these women would be accord¬ 
ing to the fashion of the minority. The square and 


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24 


METHODS OF BURIAL 


obtuse attitudes occur in 40 per cent, more men than 
is proportionate to the women, indicating that the 
men adopted the invaders’ fashion earlier than 
women. 

(49) . The direction of the body is recorded in 969 
graves of the ist dynasty at Tarkhan. There is no 
regular change traceable in the proportion of the 
prehistoric position—head south—to the historic 
position—head north. The only change is the dis¬ 
appearance of the small number of head east, being 
transferred to head west. 

Regarding sex, there are a quarter more men than 
women head south, and the reverse proportion to the 
north. 

(50) . The direction of the face, or the side on which 
the body lay, may be considered as either of them 
determining the other. The side—right or left— 
shows early a slight increase of right side, but nothing 
distinctive. The face direction, however, goes with 
the head direction. Head north, face east, diminishes; 
head east, face south, diminishes; head west, face 
north, increases, throughout the period S.D. 77-81. 

(51) . The square and obtuse attitudes are more 
constantly on the left side than the generality of 
burials. Apparently this later, or dynastic attitude 
is strongly with left-side burial. 

(52) . The valley graves are only about two-thirds 
of the size of the hill graves; but they gradually 
increase as time advances. 

(53) . On the whole, the earlier burials are nearer 
the valley mouth ; and the minority type being of 
higher class are farther up the valley. The greater 
part of the cemetery seems to be now inaccessible 
under water. 

(54) . The coffins in the valley are much smaller 
than those on the hills. 

(55) . The cheaper baskets are not used in the early 
hill graves, but are common in the valley. 

(56) . Slate palettes were twice as common among 
the lower class burials of the valley, as among the 
hill burials. They practically disappear at S.D. 79. 
Square forms last on into the latest graves. Evidently 
the slate palette belonged to the earlier and poorer 
people, and was rejected by the richer invaders. 
About half the women and a quarter of the men had 
them. 

(57) . Beads were very common ; probably nearly 
all the women were buried with necklaces and arm- 
lets of beads, and perhaps a quarter of the men. 
Even after much robbing of beads, they remain in a 
fifth of the women’s graves. 


CHAPTER VI 

EARLY EGYPTIAN SKULLS 

59. The measurements of the skulls do not appear 
to serve as criteria for the distinction of groups in 
the same manner as those of the long bones, already 
discussed. This is partly due to the lesser number, 
partly to the much greater complexity of the elements 
of the skull. The length, which is looked on as the 
main dimension, is formed of three separate bones, 
which grow with various curvatures, and meet at 
various angles. The number of variables, and the 
many causes of variation, render it far less likely that 
significant differences will be found in the skull than 
in the long bones, where only a single element of 
growth is involved. 

60. The material for study is in two classes. The 
most numerous, but perhaps less accurate, are the 
measures taken from the skulls as they lay in the 
ground, like those taken of the long bones. The 
other class will be the measurements to be taken from 
the paraffined skulls, now in the charge of Professor 
Pearson at University College, and published here 
only in photograph, pis. Ixi to Ixxi. These two 
classes do not much overlap, as Mr. Thompson did 
not take many measurements from those skulls which 
were removed in a lump of earth, to be dried and 
preserved. In all there are 334 skulls measured in 
the graves (143 M, 191 F), the resulting curves of 
distribution of which are here published (pi. Ixxii). 
There are 65 skulls photographed here, now in Pro¬ 
fessor Pearson’s hands. Of these two classes, only 13 
are in common. 

As regards the accuracy of the measurements in 
the graves, 13 skulb thus measured, which are now 
in London, were re-measured for comparison. The 
differences comprise (i) errors of measurement, pro¬ 
bably all in the first series ; (2) changes by gravity 
in lifting the weak skull, full of earth, from the grave; 

(3) changes by emptying and cleaning the skull, 
which would scarcely hold together until paraffined ; 

(4) changes due to soaking with paraffin, lifting while 
soft, and settling during hardening. The average 
difference found, owing to all these causes together, is 
I‘6 mm. in length and breadth. The grave measure¬ 
ments are rather too small horizontally, averaging 
•6 mm. in length and *4 mm. in breadth less than the 
final measures, or the skull may have expanded in 
length and breadth. On the other hand, the height 
(in the five cases in common) averages 3 mm. too 
large in the grave measures. It is unlikely that the 


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OUTLINES OF JAWS 


25 


grave measures should be in error in opposite direc¬ 
tions in the two dimensions ; and therefore it seems 
most likely that the various causes of difference stated 
above have resulted in a flattening out or settlement 
of the skull, averaging ^ mm. in horizontal measures, 
and 3 mm. shortening of the height. If such changes 
have taken place, it is certain that they would not act 
uniformly; so that a part of the 1*6 mm. average 
difference of the two series of measures must be due 
to the variations in the changes. 

61. The curves here given (pi. Ixxii) are taken 
entirely from the grave measures. It will be seen 
that a fluctuation of i or 2 mm. will not at all affect 
the general nature of much larger variability shown 
by these curves. Hence the question of these small 
errors may be disregarded in our present view. 

In setting out these curves, the skulls of bodies 
which we have already separated in this book, as 
belonging to the male minority, are here taken 
separately. The curves of males are only here 
formed from the majority. The minority, of which 
there are not enough samples to form a curve of 
distribution, are marked by spots along the base of 
the curve to which they correspond. The median 
example is marked by M in each curve and group. 
In length, it is seen that the majority median is 189, 
the minority 3 mm. less. In breadth, the majority is 
136*5, the minority 2-5 mm. less. In height, the 
majority is 136, the minority 3 mm. less. It may 
perhaps be thought that differences of 3 mm. are not 
significant in so wide a distribution. It may be 
stated in another way; the minority are 9 under, and 
4 over, the majority length; 8 under, and 3 over, the 
breadth; 6 under, and i over, the height Such a 
preponderance, always more than 2 to i, cannot be 
disregarded. 

It appears, then, that the skulls of the minority 
males were about 3 mm. smaller in each dimension 
than those of the majority. Or in percentage 
differences, i*6 per cent in length, i *8 in breadth, 2*2 
in height; thus making a total of 5*6 on contents. 
The average difference in the long bone measures is 
4 per cent on the length of the bone, as already stated 
in the last chapter. In every respect, therefore, it 
appears that the invading minority were a smaller 
race than the native majority. 

62. The Systematic Study of Jaws 

In the uncertainty as to how the jaw should be 
measured or defined, a preliminary search of the 
material is needed. For this purpose, a drawn out- 
4 


line of each jaw was made; and as it was for com¬ 
parative purposes only* it was taken by laying the 
side of the jaw on paper, outlining it about to the 
bicuspid, then sighting the front part at a tangent to 
the front This does not give any statutory dimen¬ 
sion, but it shows well the general shape and size of 
the jaw for comparison. 

How to gather some conclusion from these draw¬ 
ings was not obvious. They were looked at in various 
ways; but though they vary greatly, no distinct 
grouping could be made, the gradation appearing 
continuous. A list had been extracted of the male 
minority, as shown by the grouping of the long bones, 
such minority being presumably the invading race. 
Hence the most promising search was by comparing 
the jaws of the minority group with those of the 
majority of males. 

As it was quite unknown what detail might prove 
distinctive, it was necessary to compare the mean of 
one group with that of the other. For the six jaws 
of the minority it was obvious that they could be 
superposed (lx. A), and the mean could be found by 
a median line drawn between the variations (lx, B). 
In order to adjust them together, the working surfaces 
were fitted one to the other, the plane of the teeth 
being a main plane; and the articular surfaces one 
over the other, on a perpendicular from the plane of 
the teeth. The difficulty lay in compounding 42 
outlines of the majority. These were broken up into 
6 groups of 7 each at haphazard. All of the seven 
were compounded, and a mean outline of each group 
drawn (lx, C), and then the six mean outlines of 
groups were compounded, and an outline drawn thus 
representing the mean of the whole 42 jaws (lx, D). 
After that it was possible to compare the mean of the 
minority group with that of the general group (lx, E). 
The full outline is the general mean, the dotted line 
is the minority mean. For this comparison, the 
whole form of the jaw is adjusted, and not only the 
working surfaces. It will be seen that the form is 
almost identical; the only clear differences being that 
in the minority the molars rise higher, and the chin is 
less full. This height of the hinge above the plane of 
the molars can be safely measured off from the draw¬ 
ings. In the general group the height is 35J mm.; 
in the minority group it is 31 mm. 

We have had to deal with a complex form with 
many variables. By superposition, and taking a 
mean composite, the differences between two groups 
are found; then it becomes possible to extract the 
difference in an exact numerical form. 


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26 


EARLY EGYPTIAN SKULLS 


So far we have been dealing with jaws entirely as 
conditioned by the working surfaces. This is how¬ 
ever only a likely supposition and not a necessity. 
It might be as reasonable to adjust jaws together by 
the whole outline. If this is done, it does not seem 
to make any notable difference in the mean, except 
that the chin in the minority group then very closely 
agrees to the majority (lx, F). The plane of the 
teeth still remains different in the two groups, which¬ 
ever way the examples are adjusted. 

That this difference is really significant, amid the 
natural variations, we can state in another way. The 
mean of the majority is 35 J mm. for the height of the 


joint over the molar plane; 5 of the minority are 
much less than this, and only i is larger. Or, other¬ 
wise, the mean of the minority is 31 mm.; 33 of the 
majority exceed this, and only 7 are smaller. Thus 
taking the median of either series as a standard, it 
divides the other series in the proportion of 5 to I. 

The net result of the whole examination is that 
the majority and minority jaws were of the same 
form, but the minority molars grew 4} mm. further 
up in the lower jaw, with presumably less to correspond 
in the upper jaw. In short the heavy growth of the 
teeth was, in the minority, transferred from the skull 
to the lower jaw. 


Digitized b) 


Google 


Original from 

UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN 



INDEX 


Adze, copper, 9 

wooden handle of, 6 
Alabaster bowls, 2, 5, 8, 10 
cones, II 
dish, 5 
jars, 6, 9, 10 
kohl-pot, 12 
stools, 8, 9 
Amulets, 9 
Amulet, scorpion, 9 
Animals buried with master, 6 
Armlets of copper, 9 
of ivory, 9 
of shell, 10 

Attitudes of burial, 21 


Baboon of copper, 9 
Basket burial, 6 
Beads, 9, 23, 24 

register of, 13 

Bed-poles, to support roofing, 8 
Beetles in green stone, 9 
Black clay pot, 10 
Body, position of, 21 
Bones, measurement of, 15, 16, 17 
Bowl of porphyry, 8 
Bowls of alabaster, 2, 5, 8, 10 
Bricks, measurements of, 5, 6 
Burials, earliest, 3 

in baskets, 6 
in wooden coffins, 5, 23 

Calf bones, offerings of, 5, 6 
Campion, Rev. C. T., i 
Capping of graves, 2 
Clavicles, graphs of, 17 
Clay sealings, 11 


Coffins of basket work, 23 
of wood, 5, 23 
size of, 23 
Copper baboon, 9 
knife, 9 

lids of beaten, 9 
conical piece of, 9 
Corpus of pottery, 13 

of slate palettes, 12 
of stone vases, 13 
Court for offerings, 2 
Cup, 10 

Cylinder jars, 3, 5, 8 

Den, pottery marks of the reign of, 5 
-Setui, 8 

Dress of Mena period, 10 
Direction of head, 6, 24 
Dish, alabaster, 5 
Donkeys, burial of, 6 
Duck, burial of, 6 
Dynasty, graves of first, 23 

eleventh, i 

Engelbach, Mr., i 

Face, direction ofi 6, 24 
Falcon of sard, 9 
Femur, graphs of, 17 
Flint Hakes, 10 

knives, 10, ii 
Flints, worked, 8 
Foreign pottery, ii, 12 
Fuel, stored in mastaba, 6 

Galena, 9 
Glazed ware, 10 
*7 


Digitized 


. Google 


Original from 

UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN 



28 


INDEX 


Granaries, models of, 4 

Graphs, methods of determining, 15 

Grass mat, 6 

Graves, described, 2, 3, 4, 5 
distribution of, 22 
register of, 13 
size of, 22 


Mena, 3, 10 
Menkaura, 4 
Model jars, 3 


Nor-mer, 10 
North, Mr., i 


Hairpins, ivory, 10 
Head, direction of, 6, 24 
rests, 12 

House, origin of mastaba, 8, 9 
timbers, 5 

Humerus, graphs of, 16 


Ivory bowls, 9 
box, 9 
disc, 9 
hairpins, 10 
ring, 10 
rods, 10 
spoons, 9 
vase, 10 


Jar, model, 3 

with carrying rope, $ 
Jars, alabaster, 2, 3, 5, 6, 10 
Jaws, study of, 25 


Ka, door for, 5 
Khufu-ankh, 4 
Knife, copper, 9 
flint, 10 


Offering court, 2 
Ointment, jar containing, 10 


Painted patterns on jars, 13 
Palettes, slate, 2, 9, 10, 12, 23, 24 
Papyrus mat, 5, 6 
Paraffin wax, 14 
Path for spirit, 5 
Pearson, Prof. Karl, 14, 24 
Pendant, 9 

Petrie, Mrs. Flinders, i 

Physical Anthropology, prominence given to, i 

Plan of valley cemetery, i, 22 

Porphyry bowl, 8 

Position of body, 22, 23 

Pottery, 3, 4, 5 

foreign, ii, 12 
marks, 5, 12 


Radius, graphs of, 16 
Reed, vertical, in grave, 5 
Riqqeh, i 

Roofing supported by bed-poles, 8 
Royal names, 10, 12 


Limestone figure, 9 
lid of, 10 
pear mace, 11 
Linen cloth, 6, 10 


Mace, 10, II 
Marks on pottery, 5 
Mastabas, 2, 3, 4, 5, 9 
Mastaba tombs, origin of, 8, 9 
Mat of grass, 6 

of papyrus, 5, 6 
Memphis, i 


Sard, falcon of, 9 
„ scorpion of, 9 
Scarab of, Er-dy-ra^ 12 
Sealings, clay, 11 
Semer-khet, 5, 12 
Serpentine, beetles of, 9 
Shell armlets, 10 

Shelves, converging, for photographing skulls, 14 
Shrines, 3 

Site of excavations, i 
Skulls, measurement of, 14, 24 
Slate palettes, 2, 9, 10, 12, 23, 24 
Slits in brickwork, 2, 3 
Spoons, ivory, 9 


Digitized b) 


Google 


Original from 

UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN 



iNDE)^ 


2g 


Stack of offerings, 2, 3 
Stone tables, 11 
vases, 2 

Stool of alabaster, 8 
Syrian flask, 12 

Table of alabaster, 8, 11 
„ of stone, 11 
Tabu, 3 

Teeth, plane of, 26 
Thompson, Mr. Horace, i, 15, 24 


Vases of stone, 2, 8 
„ glazed, 10 

Walking-sticks, 6 
Weights, II 

Wood, the building material of early man, 8 
Wooden coffins, 5, 23 

Yellow limestone, vase of, 8 

Zet, 5 


h JfmatU, & yimty, L4., mni AyUsimy, 


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UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN 



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TARKHAN. GLAZED POTTERY AND ALABASTER VASES 


GREEN GLAZED POTTERY 


ALABASTER VASES, 2060 


GRAV^E NUfWBERS OF 
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UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN 






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FROM NORTH EAST 


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TARKHAN 


MASTABA 2038. 1st DYNASTY 


FENDER WALL AND EAST FACE 


CLAY MODELS OF GRANARIES 


GRAVES IN EAST CORRIDOR 


BRICK PLAN OF RECESS. MASTABA 2050 


GRAVE 2039. SEE ABOVE 



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TARKHAN. TYPES OF SLATE PALETTES. 



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TARKHAN. EXTRA ALABASTER TYPES, 22-63. 



































































































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TARKHAN REGISTER OF BURIALS. SEQUENCE . DATE 7S. 


GKAVpaODYl 
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